Writing Redux Reducers in Rust

Writing Redux Reducers in Rust

Here is the excellent application ever!!

Arend van Beelen

Major Software Engineer

Wed Apr 06 2022


min. be taught


At Fiberplane, we’re building a collaborative notebook editor for incident response and infrastructure debugging. As half of the challenges we confronted implementing such an editor, we had several complex functions written in Rust that we needed to make exercise of on the frontend thru WebAssembly.

This put up will explore how we built-in this WASM code into a React/Redux application, to boot to why we ended up writing our possess bindings generator for it.

Initial solution: Wasm-bindgen to the rescue

The plan in which we initially built-in our Rust code used to be barely straightforward: We simply primitive wasm-bindgen, the dash-to instrument for integrating Rust WASM code in the browser. The functions that utilized our industry common sense had been pure functions that we invoked from our Redux thunks and reducers as acceptable. The total code that dealt with Redux without extend used to be unruffled being written in TypeScript.

All the pieces worked nonetheless some effort factors like a flash emerged. Whereas wasm-bindgen lets in for passing complex recordsdata structures backward and forward thru JSON serialization, we bumped into some helpful boundaries:

  • Rust structs had been exposed as classes to TypeScript. This didn’t match our usage of unpleasant-historic objects that we wished to retailer in our Redux disclose. Worse, style-stable enums had been no longer supported in any recognize. This led us to make exercise of ts-rs for producing our TypeScript forms, with manually written glue code the place we needed to pass objects with forms generated from ts-rs into functions generated by wasm-bindgen. Again, issues worked, nonetheless the answer used to be becoming more and more brittle.
  • Serialization overhead also became an mission. Exposing pure functions used to be expedient for testability nonetheless some operations had been gargantuan and passing them backward and forward across the WASM bridge regularly became a bottleneck for us. This used to be specifically problematic when a client needed to luxuriate in battle resolution. Here’s a complex diagram that entails several round-trips inside and outside of WASM. This at perfect made us rethink how we did our disclose management…

Iteration: Intriguing the Reducers into Rust

When your core common sense is written in Rust, while your disclose is managed in TypeScript, you presumably can even possess an impedance mismatch. Each time it’s essential invoke your common sense, you pay the value of serializing the relevant disclose backward and forward. We also can no longer stride this mission entirely (we unruffled desired to possess disclose in TypeScript, in negate that React also can render it), nonetheless we minimized its affect by intelligent our disclose into Rust.

How we did this, you presumably can even ask?

1. Write Reducers in Rust

First, we ported our reducers to Rust. This resulted in reducers with signatures much like this one:


fn reducer(disclose: &Negate, action: Circulate) -> (Negate, VecSideEffectDescriptor>)


These are pure functions, factual as reducers wants to be. They retain stop an existing disclose and an action, and return a brand recent disclose. In addition they return a list of aspect blueprint descriptors, which we’ll discuss about later.

2. Advise Reducers to TypeScript

Subsequent, we repeat these reducers to TypeScript, while averting having to serialize the disclose across the bridge:


static mut STATE: InactiveRefCellState>> = Inactive:: recent(|| RefCell:: recent(Negate:: default()));


fn reducer_bridge(action: Circulate) -> ReducerResult {

unsafe {

let old_state = STATE.get_mut();

let (new_state, side_effects) = reducer(old_state, action);

let state_update = StateUpdate:: from_states(old_state, &new_state);


ReducerResult {







There’s a pair of issues occurring here:

  • On the first line of code we witness the disclose occasion that lives in Rust. It’s a world mutable variable. Here is on the total frowned upon because here is unsafe in a multi-threaded ambiance. For us it’s okay, since we finest exercise this in a single-threaded WASM ambiance.
  • Subsequent, we witness the reducer characteristic itself, which has about a good substances:
    • No disclose is handed in. This trend finest actions unruffled possess to be serialized on reducer invocations, while the realm disclose is injected in the physique. And after the call to the brand new reducer, the realm disclose is replaced with the recent disclose.
    • A ReducerResult style is returned which contains the aspect blueprint descriptors and a state_update field. This state_update is successfully a diff between the abnormal disclose and the recent disclose, in negate that we finest prefer to serialize substances of the recent disclose which possess actually changed. If your disclose is small, you potentially can safe away with simply returning the chubby recent disclose. Sadly, our disclose is resplendent gargantuan at this point, in negate that used to be no longer an option for us.
    • An #[fp_export_impl] annotation that presents a small bit spoiler for our recent bindings generator, which we can discuss about below.

3. Call the Reducer from TypeScript

We unruffled possess abnormal Redux reducers in TypeScript, as no longer all of our disclose slices dwell in Rust (let’s face it, no longer all reducers need to be in Rust, and it’s less complicated no longer to switch them). For individuals who develop dwell in Rust, the respective TypeScript reducers invoke their Rust counterparts:


export default characteristic reducer(

disclose = initialState,

action: Circulate

): StateWithSideEffectsState> {

const end result = reducerBridge(action);

disclose = stateUpdateReducer(disclose, end result.stateUpdate);

const { sideEffects } = end result;

return { disclose, sideEffects };



The vital takeaway here is that we invoke the Rust reducer with out passing alongside the disclose nonetheless as a substitute we update the Redux disclose the usage of the stateUpdate that we obtained as half of the ReducerResult (our state_update field from the previous allotment, as our bindings robotically convert between casing conventions). We exercise a separate stateUpdateReducer() that applies the returned update, which I unnoticed for brevity.

At this point, you may well presumably witness that we develop indeed possess two copies of our disclose: One in TypeScript and one in Rust. The TypeScript one is primitive for rendering in React, while the one in Rust is the valid source of reality that our core common sense operates on. Having two copies of the disclose does spend some more memory nonetheless, total, here is negligible for us. One downside even though, the definition of initialState in TypeScript, is unruffled something we want to manually withhold in sync with the Negate::default() implementation we possess in Rust. From there, any updates to the disclose are saved in sync by the reducers.

4. Variety out Facet Effects

We would possibly well be executed by now, if it weren’t for those aspect blueprint descriptors we’ve been carrying round. Take note I stated our preliminary solution primitive to call Rust functions from Redux thunks? The explanation we called those (pure) functions from thunks rather than a reducer used to be because their end result would trigger recent aspect effects. But now that the total Rust code is named strictly within the reducer, it will’t trigger aspect effects anymore. On the least, circuitously.

So, as a substitute, we let the reducer return aspect blueprint descriptors, straightforward objects no longer entirely no longer like Redux actions. By letting our reducer return these objects, it gains the facility to think which aspect effects to trigger, with out sacrificing its purposeful purity.

Implementation-wise, aspect blueprint descriptors are kept in the Redux retailer admire any diverse disclose sever. After which we exercise a customised middleware to trigger the accurate effects:


export const sideEffectDispatcher =

(retailer: RetailerRootState, any>) => (next: any) => (action: any) => {

const oldSideEffects = retailer.getState()?.sideEffects;

const end result = next(action);

const { sideEffects } = retailer.getState();

if (sideEffects && sideEffects !== oldSideEffects) {

for (const descriptor of sideEffects) {




return end result;



Here, thunkForDescriptor() is a characteristic that appears a bit admire a reducer. It consists of a gargantuan swap (descriptor.style) { … } commentary that returns the acceptable thunk for every create of aspect blueprint.

Alongside came fp-bindgen…

You thought we had been nearly executed, didn’t you? Silent, there is every other thing to discuss about that is central to how we repeat our Rust reducers on the present time.

Take note how I discussed issues had been starting up to become brittle once we needed to manually wire up wasm-bindgen and ts-rs? We unruffled needed to jot down some glue code that continually wasn’t style-stable. Now, have faith how that worked out once we had most of our disclose management and our main reducers all moved into Rust… Yeah, indeed.

In the period in-between, our industry also had a necessity for chubby-stack WASM plugins. wasm-bindgen also can no longer abet that exercise case because it assumes a JavaScript host ambiance, while our servers are all running Rust. So, we created our possess bindings generator called fp-bindgen.

As we already had barely some trip in integrating these barely about a instruments, we made certain fp-bindgen also can generate the bindings for our Rust reducers as nicely. By unifying the tooling, we improved style security and executed with out maintaining hand-written glue code. On the same time, we also made it imaginable to successfully pass recordsdata between our plugins and the code in the encourage of our Redux reducers.

fp-bindgen is now birth-source and we invite you to attempt it out. Whenever you happen to also will be drawn to chubby-stack WASM plugins, otherwise you presumably can even possess a necessity for excellent Rust ↔ TypeScript interoperability, this would possibly occasionally be for you.

Wrapping up

Writing Redux Reducers in Rust is no longer for the faint of heart. There are barely about a challenges you presumably can even face. And unless you presumably can even possess a clear industry case, I’d no longer recommend taking this aspect road flippantly. You are going to prefer to accommodate barely some complexity to safe this up and running.

That stated, while you develop defend stop this route, you presumably can even salvage Rust to be a remarkably magnificent language to jot down reducers in:

  • You develop no longer prefer to stress about unintentional mutations, because the Rust compiler will enforce immutability requirements for you.
  • Convenience same to the usage of Immer — an fabulous instrument — nonetheless with out even wanting a library.
  • Frequent niceties much like if-else expressions and pattern matching.

Plus you safe the attend of sharing code alongside with your backend, with out being tied to Node.js. For us, it’s value it.

Whenever you happen to witness yourself in a same discipline to us, we hope you discovered this appropriate. fp-bindgen would possibly well be discovered on GitHub: fp-bindgen and in actual fact be at liberty to affix our Discord with any questions you’ve got!

And if engaged on challenges this sort of

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