Knowasiak community

Two Men Arrested For Trying To Build An X-Ray Lethal Power Gun

article via: source

Crawford was arrested Tuesday, after a sting operation by FBI agents in which they provided Crawford and his co-conspirator, engineer Eric J. Feight, with an nonfunctioning X-ray machine. This begs the question: Could an actual weapon be made from a working X-ray machine?

X-rays are best known for taking pictures of the insides of people. While a regular dose in a medical setting is harmless, increased exposure to X-ray radiation can cause harm. In the grand scheme of radiation, it’s a modest dosage.

Like ultraviolet radiation, the kind that comes from the sun, too much X-ray radiation can cause cancer. That can be a death sentence, but it hardly compares to the kind of death sentence that would come from, say, a regular gun. The typical chest X-ray is 1 rad, or the base unit of radiation.

An intense X-ray that gives off 5-20 rad can cause chromosomal damage, and at 20-100 rad X-rays cause temporary reduction of white blood cell counts, risking reproductive health and sterility. At 200 rad, the earliest forms of radiation sickness can take effect, and 800 or more rad absorbed in a short time is almost always fatal. Crawford planned to create a device capable of generating lethal dosages of X-ray very quickly, probably taking no more than a few hours. He described his plan as “Hiroshima on a light switch,” according to the complaint.

If X-rays can be this deadly, why don’t militaries use them?

Before answering that, it’s worth acknowledging that this is the weapon design of a crazy man, so probably not all that rooted in reality. While the agents in the sting operation disabled the X-ray generator Crawford intended to use, it’s very likely that whatever he built wouldn’t have worked anyway.

That said, the military is was in fact trying to develop directed-energy weapons. While not strictly focusing onunrelated to X-rays, directed radiation beams were the key behind an experimental military weapon, later adopted as a “pain ray” usedconsidered but never used by the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department to control prison riots. Using a much lighter dosage than Crawford and Feight’s lethal intent, these weapons would heat up the skin of their target, forcing the person to jump back

That’s a non-lethal use, designed to stop prisoners or rioting crowds. Using a higher dosage would defeat the purpose of a non-lethal (or, more accurately, a less-than-lethal) weapon, which was the military’s goal. Besides, if the military wants an actual lethal weapon, they have far more effective, time-tested, and cheaper alternatives.

An earlier version of this article neglected to mention the X-ray lasers planned as part of the “Star Wars” Strategic Defense Initiative in the 1980s. The system intended to use X-rays to shoot down Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles, unlike Crawford’s human-targeting plan.

How to make a video game (programming experience not required)

How to Make Your Own Video game

Creating a video game is a daunting task.

We’ve seen a virtual barrage of indie games for consoles and mobile platforms in recent years, as small studios — sometimes with just one or two people — create inventive, emotional projects that push the boundaries of what a “game” can be. Journey, the stunning adventure game for the PlayStation 3 from developer thatgamecompany, took home six out of 10 awards at the 2013 Game Developers Choice Awards in San Francisco. Other hit titles, like Bastion and Minecraft, continue to showcase just how powerful indie gaming has become in recent years.

However, this is article isn’t here to tout the success of others; it’s here to help you create a success of your own to tout. Making an innovative and groundbreaking game is just as difficult as creating a hit song, if not more. It requires a combination of hard work and innovation, a perhaps a dash of genius to boot. We are in no way suggesting that just anyone can sit down and make a game like Super Meat Boy or Limbo off the bat. However, making a playable game is not as insane as you might think; it just takes a little bit of time and patience. Here’s our quick guide on how to make a (very simple) video game. No experience necessary.

Note: I designed a little 8-bit game of my own, titled “The DT Express Quest,” on behalf of Digital Trends to go along with the article. I had no previous experience crafting video games, nor did I invest any money into making the project, but it’s a working video game I can write home about after a mere 10 hours of trial-and-error tinkering. Windows users can give it a whirl and help boost my self-esteem. There may be other ports down the line.

Give it try by clicking the download link below:

DT Express Quest

Conceptualize the video game

First things first, think about what you’re doing before you plow full-steam ahead with your game. It may not be a necessary step if you are just tinkering, but it’s one we highly recommend if you want your game to contain at least an ounce or so of substance. It’s easy to fall prey to the curse of second guessing your ideas and wanting to go back and continually replace what you’ve done. You can easily get stuck in this pattern forever. Visualize the kind of game you want to make, but make sure it is within your limitations as an amateur game designer. Making a completely immersive 3D world on par with the likes of Skyrim and Bioshock is out of the question, but that doesn’t mean you shouldn’t take the time to flesh out your game’s beginnings. Below are a few suggestions of things to think about from the get-go. Remember you can always expand later and change things later, but having the basics locked down will help.

  • Know the type of game you want to make (i.e. a platformer, shooter, RPG).
  • Know the budget. There are both free and premium options ripe for the taking.
  • Know the length. Keep it short or attempt something on the sprawling side?
  • Know the basic plot. It doesn’t have to be elaborate, just have a general idea of the game’s goal.
  • Know your skill level. Start with something simple and build from there.

While you won’t be able to deviate too much from the assets included in the program (custom graphic assets can be imported or made within the program’s art editor, but that may be beyond the skills of many first-time makers), RPG Maker VX could be a great way to familiarize yourself with the concepts of level and combat design, as well as storytelling and how to balance all of these aspects in your game. RPGs are beloved by fans for their deep gameplay, but behind the scenes when creating role playing games, the most difficult part is programming the game’s systems. RPG Maker VX does the heavy lifting for you, allowing you to focus on the systems themselves rather than building and coding the engine so it all works


RPG Maker VX Ace is available directly from their website, as well as on Steam, for $69.99, but a trial version is available as well. There is also a free version, RPG Maker VX Ace Lite, but the features are heavily restricted compared to the paid version. Still, even if you pick up the free version, you’ll have a solid set of tools for making what would otherwise be a complicated video game. And you can upgrade at any time should you decide that you want to go all-in and access the full features of the paid version.

IG Maker is another program from Kadokawa and Dedica, and takes RPG Maker’s template format and simple user interface and applies them to different genres — specifically 2D platformers and action RPGs. IG maker allows for more flexibility than RPG Maker when it comes to visuals and gameplay, but is still rather limited in terms of just how much you can do with your games. That’s not to say IG Maker isn’t a good option for making games; in fact, the limitations imposed on the user actually makes it more difficult to “break” a game.

You’ll have to learn some simple coding here and there in order to get the most out of your game, but the lion’s share of the programming work is handled by IG Maker itself. For the most part, you’ll be dealing with drop down menus and editing numbers here and there.

 (Windows/Mac OS X)

GameMaker is a comprehensive tool that allows users to create lush, 2D games without any prior programming knowledge. Like anything else, the program has a bit of a learning curve, but the active community and wealth of online tutorials help guide users through the process of creating everything from platformers to side-scrolling shooters with relative ease. The light version of the software is freely available, but the more robust features and exporting options require premium versions of the software that can run an upwards of $500. The program’s interface is also not the most visually enticing — think Microsoft Word circa 2000 — but the software remains an excellent tool given the general ease with which games can be made. You can easily build and port games to the iOS, Android, the Web (HTML 5), desktop operating systems, and more with no prior knowledge of coding or scripting language.

GameMaker was used by games-journalist-turned-indie-developer (an inspiration to many of us), Tom Francis, to make Gunpoint, a fantastic stealth action game that was Nominated for multiple BAFTA awards. This is just one example of popular games made with GameMaker, including Hotline Miami, Stealth Bastard, Risk of Rain, and the upcoming Hyper Light Drifter.

Game Maker

Construct 2

Like GameMaker, Scirra’s Construct 2 is another premium software program that comes coupled with an active, informative user community, and an admirable trial version that should more than suffice for those new to the field. The HMTL5-based game engine, an alternative to other web animation tools like Java and Adobe Flash, is specifically designed to create a wealth of 2D games, from platformers to hack-and-slash arcade classics. The games can be instantly previewed and ported to PC, Mac, Linux, the Chrome Web Store, the Firefox Marketplace, and both iOS and Android app stores for ultimate compatibility and ease of use across devices. The interface and game-development simplicity leaves GameMaker in the dust, but that does mean the innate tools and utilities are sub par. The built-in event system allows users to quickly program movement and other actions sans coding while the flexible structure opens the door for greater control and vivid visuals. The premium version will only run you about $120 and unlocks the software’s full potential, but the commercial package will cost you nearly $400.

Check out Hamstarök, an endless runner featuring an armored hamster, and 8-Bit Boy, a somewhat lackluster take on Super Mario, for noteworthy titles created using the software.

Construct Game Maker

 (Windows/Mac OS X/Linux)

More than 120,000 registered developers have used Stencyl, publishing more than 10,000 games across a variety of major platforms including Windows, Mac, iOS, and Android. Although the simple software doesn’t require any code knowledge of any kind, more tech-savvy types can write software code to tap into the more advanced features and environmental behaviors that are otherwise stripped down to a skeletal frame. The drag-and-drop game designer sports a clean interface and a vigorous feature that utilities custom-made “actors,” either of your own creation or from the Stencyl Forge, a built-in online marketplace that opens up a world of collaboration and sharing amongst diehard Stencyl users. Unlike other software on our roundup, the program is offered as a subscription service, with a $200 per year fee for the most expansive package, but various discounts are available for students and other users. The software is commercially driven — meaning the creators continually tout it as a lucrative way to make a quick buck opposed to merely a fun experience — but you are by no means obligated to submit your game for sponsorship or as one of the company’s heartwarming success stories.

Check out Dangerous Dungeons, a puzzle platformer, and the Super Meat Boy-inspired SkullFace for a couple prime examples of what can be done with the software.

Stencyl Game Maker

 (Open source)

Flixel, an open-source game maker that is entirely free for both personal and commercial use, birthed the likes of Canabalt and other Flash-based hits that frequently end up on our best-of game lists. It’s built from the ground up with Actionscript 3, the third version of the of the object-oriented programming language designed for controlling 2D vector animation, but is compatible with a wide selection of free development tools that render the software one of the most customizable to date. Flixel shines when creating film-strip style animations and 2D side-scrollers that feature a relatively fixed perspective, but is not capable of tackling the intricate world of 3D modeling and level design. Still, using tilemaps to create levels is intuitive and fulfilling, as are the plethora of camera functions, the pathfinding design, and the ability to save games. The open-source aspect of the software does increase the learning curve (C-styling programming knowledge helps), but that shouldn’t be a major deterrent since the program is free and resourceful. Flixel hasn’t been substantially updated in some time, but users haven’t given up hope on the potential release of version 3.0.

Check the aforementioned endless, apocalyptic runner Canabalt and Blasting Agent, a Contra-like side shooter, for two popular games utilizing the open-source engine.

Flixel Game Maker

 (Windows/Mac OS X/Linux)

Rest assured we didn’t forget about the overly ambitious, first-time game makers on our list. Unity is a fully-fledged development suite designed for building impressive 3D games on a budget. The free version of the software can be used for personal and commercial use, but you will have to shell out some cash ($1,500) for the pro version if you aspire to make commercial games as more than a hobby. The free version is generous enough though, and chock-full of features and complex design elements that will even give a veteran game maker a run for their money. Now up to version 5.0, the powerful software touts ports for 10 different platforms — including desktop and mobile versions — and is capable of delivering high-fidelity audio and video that rivals modern household-name games. Despite being one of the best 3D game-making software for the money, it’s not for the faint of heart and is best avoided until you have a little more experience under your belt. Check out some of the noteworthy titles created using Unity 5 below. All in due time, right?


Unreal Engine 4 (Windows/Mac OS X/Lunx)

game developer Epic’s widely used Unreal Engine has long been a powerful standard of AAA game development. Previous versions of the engine powered games like Gears of Warthe Batman: Arkham series, and hundreds of others. The latest version of the engine, Unreal Engine 4, is being used to create Kingdom Hearts III, Unreal Tournament, and Dragon Quest XI — some of the highly anticipated games of the current console generation.  Like Unity 5, it might be outside the realm of what most first-time game makers are comfortable with. That said, it is by far the best option if you’re looking to create professional-level 3D games. Recently, Epic made Unreal Engine 4 free to download and use for everyone, making the barrier to entry a bit less daunting. There is a bit of a catch when it comes to making money off of the games you make (Epic will take a five-percent royalty cut), but given how wide-spread the use of the engine is, and the plethora of resources and tutorials available for creators of all levels, Unreal Engine 4 is an attractive option.


Build the characters and environments

It’s time to get down to the nitty gritty and start building that game of yours. Video games are built around a cast of characters and interactive environments, whether it’s the moveable Pong paddle, Mario, or the Master Chief. Each one is designed a specific way for a specific purpose, giving each of them an easily distinguishable look and feel that makes them all standout hallmarks of their respective games.

There are multiple ways to go about creating a memorable cast, but we recommend sketching out your concepts in rudimentary form before fleshing them out in a more comprehensive fashion.

Most of the software we detailed in the previous section use 2D graphics, and for beginners this is probably best as there is an abundance of both royalty-free assets to use, and a plethora of programs for creating your own. However, if you’re going down the 3D route, we’ve got you covered there as well.

GIMP is a free open-source alternative to Photoshop.
GIMP is a free open-source alternative to Photoshop.

It might seem obvious, but regardless of if you’re working in two dimensions or three, Adobe’s entire suite of editing programs — but specifically Photoshop — will be a major boon for your game. However, these programs can be quite expensive, so if you’re trying to spend as little money as possible, there is a free alternative in GIMP, which is free on Windows, Mac OS, and Linux. With GIMP, you’ll be able to perform essentially all the same operations that you would with Photoshop — though you’ll need to learn the program’s idiosyncrasies. Whether you go with GIMP or Photoshop, a powerful image editing tool will let you create the art assets for you game, be that characters, backgrounds, menus, etc.

If you’re going the sprite-based look, but don’t want to use Photoshop or GIMP, there are several options for creating pixel art. GraphicsGale is a program that is used to create and animate 2D sprites. The program is relatively cheap (about $20), and has an easy to learn user interface. It will take time to master, but the advantage to using GraphicsGale for your sprite work is that the program is specifically tailored for that art style.

For those of you looking to make a game that uses 3D models, you’re in luck: the two most popular pieces of 3D modeling software, Maya and Blender, are available for free on Windows and Mac. These programs can be difficult to learn, but they are industry standard for game development (especially Maya), so learning how render 3D graphics will be a massive boon if you’re looking to get into game development professionally. Like the other more advanced, 3D model-based programs, these take some time to learn and master, but due to their wide-spread use and robust online communities, tutorials and guides are easy to find.

Maya 2015
Maya 2015

* Building the DT Express Quest characters and environment.  Again, I wanted to create a game loosely based on our DT 404 page. Thus I altered Digital Trends’ CTO Dan Gaul and CEO Ian Bell in Photoshop CS3, giving Dan wings and changing their feet positions to mimic movement, before adding them to GameMaker as PNG sprites. I ripped the grayish background directly from the 404 page and tiled it to appropriately encapsulate the size of the level. The spikes, coffee mugs, solid blocks and other objects were created the same way. I’m no artist, but 8-bit graphics aren’t the toughest things to work with. Below are what the character sprites looked like in Photoshop.

Dan and Ian

Tinker with and publish the game

We can’t emphasize enough how much of your video game relies on the trial-and-error process. There’s going to be a great deal of simple things you want to do, but can’t wrap your head around how to accomplish them. Don’t fret, your game isn’t going anywhere. Take the time to peruse the software forums — they’ll provide you with anything and everything you need to know — and don’t get discouraged when things don’t click right away. You’re probably not on a deadline.

dt-game-625x1000 (1)

That’s it! Once you feel you’re game is ready for the market, however big or little, publish it. Each game-making program offers different publishing options based on the software version you’re running and whether you opted for the premium or light edition. You can always publish your game to another platform later, so don’t worry if you can only port it to one device, or only offer it only as an .EXE file. Share your creation with others and continue to build upon your success (or failure).

* Publishing the DT Express Quest. We chose not to purchase any software, so our publishing options were limited. We also chose to distribute as .EXE file, though the more robust versions of GameMaker allow ports for the desktop, mobile devices and even consoles.

What did you think of our guide on how to make a video game? Better yet, how did you like our little video game? Let us know in the comments below and be sure to share with us some of your own creative endeavors.

How to Hack any Mobile Application: It’s Easier than You Think!

We live in a mobile, personal world, where more than 1.5 billion new mobile phones ship each year. Businesses that are most efficiently adapting to today’s “app economy” are the most successful at deepening customer engagement and driving new revenues in this ever-changing world. Where business opportunities abound, opportunities for “black hats” that conduct illicit and malicious activity abound as well.


Mobile app hacking is becoming easier and faster than ever before. Let’s explore why:

  • It’s fast: Industry research found that in 84 percent of cases, the initial compromise took “just minutes” to complete.
  • It’s relatively easy: There are automated tools readily available in the market to support hacking, and many of them are available for free!
  • Mobile apps are “low-hanging fruit”: In contrast to centralized Web environments, mobile apps live “in the wild,” on a distributed, fragmented and unregulated mobile device ecosystem. Unprotected binary code in mobile apps can be directly accessed, examined, modified and exploited by attackers.

Hackers are increasingly aiming at binary code targets to launch attacks on high-value mobile applications across all platforms. For those of you who may not be familiar, binary code is the code that machines read to execute an application — it’s what you download when you access mobile apps from an app store like Google Play.

Exploitable Binary-based Vulnerabilities

Well-equipped hackers seek to exploit two categories of binary-based vulnerabilities to compromise apps:

Code Modification or Code Injection:

This is the first category of binary-based vulnerability exploits, whereby hackers conduct unauthorized code modifications or insert malicious code into an application’s binaries. Code modification or code injection threat scenarios can include:

  • A hacker or hostile user, modifying the binary to change its behavior. For example, disabling security controls, bypassing business rules, licensing restrictions, purchasing requirements or ad displays in the mobile app — and potentially distributing it as a patch, crack or even as a new application.
  • A hacker injecting malicious code into the binary, and then either repackaging the mobile apps and publishing it as a new (supposedly legitimate) app, distributed under the guise of a patch or a crack, or surreptitiously (re)installing it on an unsuspecting user’s device.
  • A rogue application performing a drive-by attack (via the run-time method known as swizzling, or function/API hooking) to compromise the target mobile app (in order to lift credentials, expose personal and/or corporate data, redirect traffic, etc.)

Reverse Engineering or Code Analysis:

This is the second category of exploitable binary vulnerabilities, whereby mobile app binaries can be analyzed statically and dynamically. Using intelligence gathered from code analysis tools and activities, the binaries can be reverse-engineered and valuable code (including source code), sensitive data, or proprietary IP can be lifted out of the application and re-used or re-packaged. Reverse engineering or code analysis threat scenarios may include:

  • A hacker analyzing or reverse-engineering the binary, and identifying or exposing sensitive information (keys, credentials, data) or vulnerabilities and flaws for broader exploitation.
  • A hacker lifting or exposing proprietary intellectual property out of the application binary to develop counterfeit applications.
  • A hacker reusing and “copy-catting” an application, and submitting it to an app store under his or her own branding (as a nearly identical copy of the legitimate application).

You can see examples of these hacks “brought to life” on YouTube and a summary of Binary Exploits is provided in our graphic below. Whether your organization licenses mobile apps or extends your customer experience to mobile technology, the norm is that hackers are able to trivially invade, infect and/or counterfeit your mobile apps. Consider the following:

Reverse Engineering or Code Analysis (Confidentiality) - Code Modification or Code Injection (Integrity)

B2C Apps Eight of the top 10 apps in public app stores have been hacked, according to Arxan State of Security in the App Economy Research, Volume 2, 2013. This means that anyone developing B2C apps shouldn’t assume that mobile app store-provided security measures are sufficient. Often these security measures rely on underlying assumptions, such as the lack of jailbroken conditions on the mobile device — an unsafe and impractical assumption today.
B2E Apps In the case of enterprise-internal apps (B2E), conventional IT security measures such as mobile device management (MDM) and application policy wrappers can be valuable tools for device management and IT policy controls for corporate data and application usage, but they aren’t designed to protect against application-level hacking attacks and exploits.

Time to Secure Your Mobile App

With so much of your organizational productivity riding on the reliable execution of your apps, and such a small a barrier for hackers to overcome superficial threat protection schemes, you could face significant risk unless you step up the protection of your application. It’s time to build trust in apps not just around them.

Application Hardening and Run-Time Protection are mission-critical security capabilities, required to proactively defend, detect and react to attempted app compromises. Both can be achieved with no impact to source code, via an automated insertion of “guards” into the binary code. When implemented properly, layers of guards are deployed so that both the application and the guards are protected, and there’s no single point of failure. Steps one can take to harden and protect apps at run-time are readily available.

Recent history shows that despite our best efforts, the “plumbing” of servers, networks and end-points that run our apps can easily be breached — so isn’t it high-time to focus on the application layer, as well?

Watch our YouTube video below to learn more about the importance of mobile security protection. And for the latest trends in mobile application security, consult our Ponemon Institute blog and companion report, titled “2017 State of Mobile & Internet of Things (IoT) Application Security.” We also encourage you to test-drive our mobile application security testing solution by signing up for a free trial of IBM Application Security on Cloud today.

Scientists accidentally make ‘impossible material’ Upsalite – the world’s most efficient water absorber

Scientists accidentally make ‘impossible material’ Upsalite – the world’s most efficient water absorber


Human error solves problem of how to produce world’s most efficient water absorber more cheaply.

It is so difficult to make that the researchers who first discovered it called it the “impossible material”.

Now a century later, a team of Swedish scientists have done the impossible by producing the substance known as Upsalite by accident – after leaving their equipment running over the weekend.

The breakthrough has far-reaching commercial applications, as Upsalite (named after the University of Uppsala, where the scientists are based) is the world’s most efficient water absorber, with potential to be used for the removal of moisture in drug creation and high-tech electronics to cleaning up huge oil spills.

A single gram of this elusive white, dry, powdered form of magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) has an extraordinarily-large surface area of 800 square meters thanks to numerous minuscule pores, each one a million times smaller than the width of a human hair.

“Upsalite absorbs more water and low relative humidities than the best materials presently available and can be regenerated with less energy consumption than is used in similar processes today,” said Maria Stromme, professor of nanotechnology at Uppsala University.

“This, together with other unique properties of the discovered impossible material, is expected to pave the way for new sustainable products in a number of industrial applications,” she said.

Other uses include ice hockey rinks, warehouses, the collection of toxic waste or chemical spills and odour control.

MgCO3 is also about as dry as a material can get, a property which, combined with a huge relative surface area that is inundated with pocket pores, makes it the world’s best mop. The only problem is that, until now, this absorbent form of magnesium carbonate could only be produced by a process that is so expensive and involves so much heat that it wasn’t remotely feasible to use it. While other members of the so-called “disordered carbonates” family could be produced more cheaply and simply – by bubbling carbon dioxide through a mixture containing alcohol – a group of German researchers claimed in 1908 that this method couldn’t be used to make dry MgCO3. And so they dubbed it the “impossible material”.

The irony is that although the Uppsala team had been trying to create the impossible material, they had been going about it the wrong way.

“A Thursday afternoon in 2011, we slightly changed the synthesis parameters of the earlier employed unsuccessful attempts, and by mistake left the material in the reaction chamber over the weekend. Back at work on Monday morning we discovered that a rigid gel had formed and after drying this gel we started to get excited,” says Johan Gomez de la Torre.

The unwitting solution still involved bubbling the Co2 through the alcohol mixture, but at three times normal atmospheric pressure. A year of detailed analysis and experimental fine tuning followed, during which time it was discovered that when heated to 70C the resulting gel solidifies and collapses into a white and coarse powder.

“It became clear that we had indeed synthesised the material that previously had been claimed impossible to make. This places it in the exclusive class of porous, high surface area materials,” said Ms Stromme.


I’m in 9th standard;

Please visit and help me to grow. Wondering what it is about? Then read this post to know about my blog








{This site is in beta version now .Soon it will be publishing to its full version.}






living in India and I’m lovin to do activities like dancing, singing ,arts and abstract,modern paintings and sketching and web designing and I’m also an author ; I love to write stories, poems and novels and I’m pretty much interested in electronics and hacking.



Then please tell me in the comments below what can I do to improve my site’s experience for you.

unnamed (9)

Follow ,comment ,share and like my blog ,So that I can give you amazing diy articles like this. And help me to grow. Click the share button now!

unnamed (10)

Which planet is similar to earth? NASA answered.

Discovering the first true “alien Earth” is a long-held dream of astronomers — and recent exoplanet discoveries suggest that their dream will come true in the not-too-distant future.

Scientists have found nearly 2,000 alien planets since the first such world was confirmed orbiting a sunlike star in 1995. More than half of these discoveries were made by NASA’s Kepler space telescope, which launched in 2009 on a mission to determine how common Earth-like planets are throughout the Milky Way galaxy.