No user accounts, by design

Ethics has been central to the F-Droid community from the beginning, with a
focus on free software, privacy and user
control. A key part of F-Droid’s design is the lack of user accounts. There
are no user accounts used, ever, in the process of delivering apps to
users. This is by design. F-Droid has never had a method to identify or
track users in the Android client app, and getting information from has also never required any kind of identity information.

Having user accounts makes some problems much easier to solve: it makes it
easy to include ratings and reviews and to manage editing of documentation.
However, having user accounts makes other problems much more difficult to
solve. User accounts inevitably mean that personally identifiable
information (PII) will be
collected and stored. User accounts also require passwords, and often phone
numbers or email addresses. All that data needs to be defended. One of our
core goals is to eliminate the possibility of tracking our users. Having
user accounts would make that goal nearly impossible.

It turns out that user accounts are rarely a requirement for building a
service, even though many services make it seem that way. User accounts are
a great way to gather

and link it all together to create very detailed profiles. This is central
to tracking users in order to commodify them and
their attention to the highest bidder.

User accounts are also used to control access to information and data. They
are used to “region lock” videos and selectively
access to apps. There
are of course valuable use cases for restricting access, like ensuring small
children can only access age appropriate content. But there are other ways
of doing that, like curating repositories so that adult material is
delivered via separate, opt-in repositories.

User accounts are central to tracking people

User accounts and IDs are a key part of tracking users and building long
lasting profiles. If a service requires an account to access it, that
service is likely tracking its users. When a user logs in, they are clearly
telling the service who they are. And that service can then easily ascribe
actions to that account to build

This is not to say that there are no valid reasons to track users. As
mentioned earlier, Wikipedia editors are an example of an essential service
built on user accounts. What we are saying is if privacy is important to
you, then login requirements should make you stop and think.

Google provides us with an ugly example. It puts a lot of effort into
getting people to log in as much as possible, and most of their services
require users to be logged in with an account. And those that don’t nag you
to login. The Chrome browser even has
which are linked to Google accounts. They often justify this
saying it makes services easier to use. While it is true that tracking
users can make certain things serve the user better, Google consistently
seems to apply these cases to situations where it means they get more
tracking data. With Google Meet, they still require logins to create a
meeting, even though they support joining meetings via a URL without an
account. Jitsi Meet’s user experience is much easier and has no accounts.
Or consider the Google issue tracker: it currently requires both Javascript
and an active Google account to use the service in any way, even if you just
want to read existing posts. It worked for years without Javascript or user
accounts, so it is clear that the service does not need them to run.

What works without user accounts?

It turns out that F-Droid is not alone in delivering key services without
user accounts or profiles. There are browsers, wikis, shared notepads,
video conferencing, and even messaging and analytics. Many systems that use
accounts also allow reading and even editing without logging in.

The first question to answer is: does this service need to know who the
users are in order to function? Can that information remain only on the
users device? For example, an email or messaging service needs to know
enough about its users to be able to direct data from a user sending a
message to the intended recipient. This has mostly meant that the server
relies on each user having an account with the server. This is a common way
to implement such a system, but it is not the only way. Tor Onion
opens up a
different approach. They are designed for routing data without any part of
the system being able to see who is sending data to whom, and who is making
the request. Briar builds upon
this to make messaging work without anyone knowing who is sending messages
to whom, outside of those involved in the conversation. With Briar, the
user contact information is only ever on the users’ devices.

Video conferencing was built around user IDs like accounts and phone
numbers. Services like Jitsi Meet
pioneered a new way: each conference room is represented by a name in a URL,
e.g. Anyone who has
that URL can open it in a browser and join the room. Jitsi Meet works very
well, and demonstrated that online meetings actually work better without
user accounts: they are much easier to setup and manage. Currently, no
online meeting platform would be taken seriously if it does not support
joining meetings with a URL only, in other words, with no user account at

Wikipedia is a great hybrid example. It is possible to edit most pages
without an account at all, just by clicking edit and making the changes.
User generated content inevitably needs controls to tame edit wars and
abusive behavior. So user accounts are still a key part of how Wikipedia
works. However, in this case, it stems from the Wikimedia editors’ need to
deliver essential services to their users rather than manufactured reasons
to track and hook ever more people.

Mozilla has taken this idea a step further with Firefox
known as Firefox
similar to
Firefox Klar but with less private default settings). This web browser
makes it easy to use the web without keeping any state at all. The browser
version for mobiles follows the same basic idea: tracking people is not
necessary to provide a good user experience. I personally prefer using
Firefox Focus on my phone because I specifically want to avoid thinking
about managing accounts, cookie preference screens, history, etc. I just
use it to look up information, and when I’m done and click the notification,
its all wiped clean. (Unfortunately, Focus and Klar both contain Google
Play Services proprietary libraries, e.g., so they
are not currently distributed on We welcome contributions to
remove the proprietary bits so we can distribute them again

Guardian Project is developing Clean Insights
to promote the idea that usage analytics can provide useful insights that
only benefit the end users. For this to happen, there must be absolutely no
way to track users: no tracking IDs, no user accounts, no nothing. F-Droid
has done some experiments with Clean
Insights, and the approach looks quite promising. Any kind of analytics
needs to go beyond concerns of privacy in order to serve users. We also
need to consider that digital media has the power to
and addict

Since the F-Droid ecosystem works on
hashes of
static files without access controls, it unlocks all sorts of flexibility.
Mirrors of the repository can be safely delivered via
services around the world, local Raspberry
, or
even a USB thumb drive. Any content can be archived by anyone without
permission or centralized services

Accounts used when making F-Droid

We can also announce that the website has no user accounts at
all in any part of it. The final piece was the old MediaWiki instance that
was at This has been replaced by and The
forum is built with Discourse, which is built
around user accounts. Still, our forum can be read without logging in or
using Javascript. User accounts are a well known tool for managing spam and
abusive behavior on public forums, and that is how they are used in our
forum. We are open to proven alternatives that can operate more privately.

With the right setup, it is possible to send contributions via git without
minimal trace of the original author. This now also applies to our wiki.
Where appropriate, we also allow contributions to come in via the
@fdroid-anyone account, which anyone can use by finding the password on
the wiki.

Working on F-Droid itself does require user accounts. We know of no other
proven method of access control for building trusted systems that millions
can rely on. Core contributors are willing to give up some privacy in order
to ensure that users can have real privacy.

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β€œSimplicity, patience, compassion.
These three are your greatest treasures.
Simple in actions and thoughts, you return to the source of being.
Patient with both friends and enemies,
you accord with the way things are.
Compassionate toward yourself,
you reconcile all beings in the world.”
― Lao Tzu, Tao Te Ching