NanoVNA: Low-cost handheld 4GHz vector network analyzer

NanoVNA: Low-cost handheld 4GHz vector network analyzer

About NanoVNA V2

NanoVNA V2 (S-A-A-2) is a 4GHz vector network analyzer (VNA) capable of measuring antennas, filters, duplexers, and amplifiers.

  • New from-scratch design by HCXQS/NanoRFE
  • Compared to other NanoVNA versions, V2 Plus4 and V2 Plus4 Pro do not use harmonics for measurements, improving performance significantly.
  • High dynamic range: 90dB (V2 Plus4), achieves similar results as professional instruments; can measure duplexers.
  • Can be used standalone or with PC
  • NanoVNA-QT software – supports advanced calibration methods and custom calibration kit parameters; allows S parameter export
  • TDR (time domain reflectometry) allows measuring cable length and discontinuities

Where to buy

Official stores

NanoVNA V2

Safe places to buy an original NanoVNA V2:

  • Official store on Tindie (worldwide)
  • Official store on Taobao (mainland China)

Beware of underperforming clones

As of February 2022 there are many clones sold under various names, many of which do not meet specifications and are highly noisy due to using incorrect or lower quality parts. Some users have also reported software/firmware incompatibility. See official stores above and look for NanoVNA V2 Plus4 versions only to avoid getting a bad clone. See also FAQ | How to avoid a bad clone.

We tested a few clones of the NanoVNA V2 design, some claiming higher specifications than the original. The earliest V2.2 version (before Plus4) that all clones are based on was designed for 3GHz only, and some clones try to extend the frequency range using harmonics without understanding the design, while substituting lower quality or counterfeit parts to reduce cost. What we saw was worsened noise, nonlinearity error, and temperature drift issues.

Here is the S11 trace noise compared to the original S-A-A-2 (NanoVNA V2.2) and Plus/Plus4 versions. The performance starts to degrade before 2GHz, and would not have passed our standard QC procedures for the earliest 3GHz V2.2 version.

LiteVNA (NanoVNA V2 clone) noise

Note: the above plots are uncalibrated to show the amount of noise of the raw data from the hardware.

Other users have done their own comparisons with similar results. Here is the S21 noise floor:

LiteVNA (V2 clone) S21 noise

Beware of clones that advertise a higher sweep speed than 100 points/s. These default to averaging and smoothing to hide the noisy performance yet still advertise sweep speed without averaging, but as seen above the noise is worse than our earliest V2.2 even with averaging enabled. To get acceptable S11 measurements, the averaging has to be so high that the sweep speed is slower than even V2.2.

The following stores have sold at least one bad clone.

  • Banggood
  • R&L electronics – still selling clones despite being asked not to by the original developers

Important: Hugen/Zeenko is selling S-A-A-2 based designs without permission and in violation of our non-commercial license, with exaggerated specifications. The original V2_2 design was open sourced to help hobbyists learn, but Zeenko’s actions force us to close source later designs. Please reconsider supporting this vendor.

Comparisons with professional VNAs

Users have compared our V2 Plus4 with professional instruments.

Here is one blog post comparing it with a Keysight FieldFox:

Comparison with HP-8753E: comparison of NanoVNA V2 with a professional VNA HP-8753E.pdf

Example measurements

LiteVNA vs V2 Plus4 dynamic range

LiteVNA vs V2 Plus4 measurement

User groups / Forums

Discussion forum

This is the only official users group. Be careful and note the URL is NanoVNAV2.




The specifications below apply only to devices manufactured by HCXQS or NanoRFE.
Beware of clones using lower quality or salvaged parts.


Board version



Frequency range

V2_2, V2 Plus

50kHz – 3GHz

V2 Plus4,
V2 Plus4 Pro

50kHz – 4.4GHz

Frequency resolution



System dynamic range

V2_2, V2 Plus





V2 Plus4


BW=6.2kHz, AVG=20


BW=6.2kHz, AVG=5

V2 Plus4 Pro


BW=1.6kHz, AVG=5


BW=1.6kHz, NO AVG

S11 noise floor



f < 1.5GHz


f < 3GHz

Sweep points


1 – 1024 points (with NanoVNA-QT software; 10-201 on device display).

Note: beware of clones that use calibration interpolation to extend the number of sweep points, compromising accuracy, especially when calibrating with test cables.

Sweep rate

V2 Plus4

400 points/s

f >= 140MHz

200 points/s

f < 140MHz

V2 Plus4 Pro

600 points/s


Power supply


USB, 4.6V – 5.5V

Supply current


400mA typ, 500mA max

No charging

Battery current, charging


1.2A typ

Battery capacity

V2 Plus4,
V2 Plus4 Pro


Operation ambient temperature


0℃ – 45℃ *

* by design, not tested in production

Ambient temperature during battery charging


10℃ – 45℃

Note: All V2 versions switch on and off the test signal rapidly and can not measure crystals or be used as a signal generator. See FAQ. A special firmware build for the V2 Plus4 that can measure crystals is posted here:

Basic usage

NanoVNA V2 Video Tutorials

VNA basics

A VNA (Vector Network Analyzer) measures the frequency dependent reflected and transmitted power of a high frequency network (RF Network).

The NanoVNA V2 measures the following:

  • Reflection coefficient: S11
  • Transmission coefficient: S21

The following items that can be calculated from these can be displayed:

  • Return loss
  • Insertion loss
  • Complex impedance
  • Resistance
  • Reactance
  • SWR

Required components

To use the NanoVNA V2 for one port measurements (e.g. antenna impedance), you will need the following:

  • NanoVNA V2 main unit
  • SMA cable, male-male
  • Calibration standards: Short, Open, and Load

Performing measurements

The basic operation and menu structure of the NanoVNA V2 is very similar to the original NanoVNA.

  • Configure the measurement frequency range:


  • Calibrate:
    1. Enter the CAL menu and connect a SMA male-male cable to port 1 of the VNA.
    2. Connect the OPEN standard to the cable end and select “OPEN”. Wait for menu highlight.
    3. Connect the SHORT standard to the cable end and select “SHORT”. Wait for menu highlight.
    4. Connect the LOAD standard to the cable end and select “LOAD”. Wait for menu highlight.
    5. Select “APPLY”. Calibration should now be active and you can start performing measurements.


User manuals

Menu maps

Firmware downloads

For firmware releases go to the Hardware versions page which lists the latest stable firmware builds for each hardware variant.

There are also experimental firmware releases at downloads.

Firmware sources are at


There are two PC programs compatible with the NanoVNA V2.
NanoVNA-QT is the native V2 software and allows adjustable sweep points and firmware updating.
NanoVNA-Saver was originally developed for the V1 NanoVNA but now also has support for V2.


See Software downloads page.

NanoVNA-QT source code:

Schematics and PCB layout

The schematics and PCB layout files of the V2.2 version are available here:

The design is licensed under CC-BY-NC-SA and commercial use without specific permission is forbidden. You need to obtain specific written permission every 3 months to sell hardware using this design.

V2.3 and V2.4 designs are confidential and proprietary, and reverse engineering is forbidden.

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