Level to HN: I constructed a Wi-Fi 6 survey kit to stare how usual it became as soon as in my space

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Level to HN: I constructed a Wi-Fi 6 survey kit to stare how usual it became as soon as in my space
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As we recently passed the 1 year anniversary of the IEEE Requirements Board’s final approval of IEEE 802.11ax in February 2021 I’ve been pondering concerning the rate of adoption — how many units and networks are available talking through Wi-Fi’s most fresh usual? For my half I became as soon as very drawn to 802.11ax’s fundamental employ of Management Body Safety (MFP) and the ahead secrecy supplied by Simultaneous Authentication of Equals (SAE) and jumped at the possibility to beef Up my home Receive admission to Level (AP) to bewitch goal accurate thing concerning the usual’s fresh aspects. Has there been a mammoth push by producers to sell more stable and sooner instruments to customers? Be pleased customers, many of which had been spending more time at home and more time online, been having a explore at fresh tech to abet their fresh lifestyles? I place apart of living out to be taught more and strive and answer to those questions.

macOS detailed Wi-Fi community bring to mind an IEEE 802.11ax (Wi-Fi 6) connection.

What can Wi-Fi Alliance info expose us?

IEEE 802.11ax is most likely more usual recognized as Wi-Fi 6: the advertising time length promoted by the Wi-Fi Alliance (WFA) to seek advice from 6th technology 802.11 technology. Have to you aren’t acquainted with Wi-Fi 6 and would fancy a immediate primer, strive this invaluable white paper from Cisco.

Wi-Fi generations. © 2018 Wi-Fi Alliance. All rights reserved.

The WFA administers Wi-Fi CERTIFIED™ programs that validate interoperability between Wi-Fi units to accomplish sure a project has “met commerce-agreed standards for interoperability, security, and a big selection of application particular protocols.” As a result of WFA’s posture as a product certifier they’ve a substantial aperture into the sphere of Wi-Fi instruments which they graciously accomplish on hand to the final public through their Product Finder plan. The employ of this plan I became as soon as able to accomplish some standpoint on how many Wi-Fi CERTIFIED 6™ products are available in the market.

Present: these numbers correct mutter products that have received certification procedure from the Wi-Fi Alliance and there are undoubtedly gaps in protection. Let’s mutter, more moderen Apple units (e.g., iPhone 13 and the 2021 MacBook Pro) don’t display Up in search results. All product numbers referenced in this post are from the time of writing.

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In step with the Product Finder plan, there are 2,280 Wi-Fi CERTIFIED 6™ products, which involves 95 Wi-Fi CERTIFIED 6E™ products (62 unprecedented models). The product classes of products are Routers (1119 units), Phones (655 units), Computers & Accessories (293 units), Other (106 units), Pills, Ereaders & Cameras (54 units), Televisions & Place Top Boxes (44 units), Gaming, Media & Tune (7 units), and Beautiful Dwelling (1 tool).

  • The 95 Wi-Fi 6E products consist of telephones (25 total models from producers Samsung, Google, and Motorola) similar to the Samsung Galaxy S21 Extremely 5G (SM-G998U), Motorola Edge 2021 (XT2141–2), and Google Pixel 6 Pro 128GB (G8V0U) and routers (27 total models from producers Huawei, Linksys, ASUSTeK, Broadcom, Cisco, DAVOLINK, HPE, Mercury Corporation, ON Semiconductor, Qualcomm, Sagemcom Broadband, & Technicolor) similar to the Linksys Atlas Max 6E Wi-Fi Mesh Gadget (MX8500), ASUS ROG RAPTURE (GT-AXE11000), and Aruba Multiservice Mobility Controller/AP-635 Receive admission to Level.

Wi-Fi 6 product certifications started in 2019 and are on-going. Samsung, Huawei, and ZTE lead the pack in certifications of Wi-Fi 6 instruments.

Top 25 producers of Wi-Fi 6 certified products, 2019 to late March 2022. Data provide: Wi-Fi Alliance.

Now, study these numbers with the 22,792 Wi-Fi CERTIFIED™ ac (aka Wi-Fi 5/IEEE 802.11ac) products, which started seeing certifications made in 2013; product certifications started in 2013 and are on-going as of 2022. Of the 358 corporations with Wi-Fi 5 certified products, Samsung, LG Electronics, and Panasonic are the tip 3 corporations by product counts adopted closely by Huawei at #4.

Top 25 producers of Wi-Fi 5 certified products, 2013 to late March 2022. Data provide: Wi-Fi Alliance.

After spending time reviewing the records from Fifth & 6th technology certifications, it became as soon as firm that the likelihood of certifications in 2020 and 2021 mutter a decline from 2019. Certainly, given potentially the latest possibility of certifications a quarter of the style into this year, it appears the decline would possibly continue through 2022.

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Graph plotting Wi-Fi 5 and Wi-Fi 6 product certifications from 2013 to 2022. The graph shows a decline in Wi-Fi 5 and Wi-Fi 6 certifications from 2020 to present.

Wi-Fi 5 & Wi-Fi 6 Wi-Fi Alliance Product Certifications 2013 to late March 2022. Data provide: Wi-Fi Alliance.

It it crucial to display that this info entirely references the product models that are certified and by no plot speaks to person unit procurement numbers. There would possibly entirely be a 2,280+ Wi-Fi 6 products certified but perchance these products are exceptionally in style and are widely frail. I don’t have info to mutter both plot.

It appears that the international chip shortage will also be a place apart of living off of the decline in fresh product certifications, if no longer lower than for Wi-Fi 6E. In step with a little bit of writing by Dan Robinson of The Register, Wi-Fi 6E products couldn’t be taking off ensuing from the dearth of endpoint alternate suggestions which in turn would possibly moreover very well be ensuing from the chip shortage, concerns about spectrum utilization regulations being inconsistent globally, and interference from instruments already running in the 6 GHz spectrum.

These numbers provide some invaluable macro context but I became as soon as unprecedented what the ambiance around me appeared fancy. I believed that the quickest plot to accomplish that became as soon as to accomplish a straightforward Wi-Fi survey kit and test what became as soon as aloof.

Where’s that Wi-Fi?

My targets had been to procure a single board computer (SBC) that became as soon as pretty much less expensive, small (wallet sized), USB-PD fancy minded, and naturally, able to video display 802.11ax frames. I suddenly met some challenges finding hardware with many legal alternate suggestions being out of stock or too expensive. I ended Up going with the DFRobot LattePanda Delta 432 which, at $259 became as soon as concerning potentially the most I’d wish to pay for this diminutive project. The computer didn’t have an 802.11ax devoted wi-fi interface but having an M.2 A/E-keyed socket, it became as soon as easy satisfactory so that you can add a $26 Intel AX200 module. I had a protective case and a conveyable battery sitting around so all I desired to accomplish became as soon as configure the tool to rep Wi-Fi frames. I made Up our minds so that you can add a GPS receiver to the kit in the occasion that I procure one thing intelligent that I would possibly later wish to strive again.

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Given all the pieces that I needed the kit to accomplish, Kismet became as soon as the supreme plan for the job and pretty rapidly I had it put in and configured on the LattePanda Delta 432 running Ubuntu 20.04. After performing about a assessments at home I place apart of living out with the kit on foot to initiate my survey.

Image showing 93 Wi-Fi channels/channel widths the Kismet program is configured to capture traffic on.

The 93 channels/channel widths configured for expend through Kismet.

Web client bring to mind Kismet expend all over testing at home.

So as to maximum my effectivity, I attempted to shuffle in potentially the most densely populated areas in my space which turned out to be the heart of Washington, DC. My theory became as soon as that the elevated the human density, the elevated likelihood of encountering APs. I also tried to survey both residential and commercial areas (advised the utilization of US Census Bureau and DC Authorities zoning info).

I attempted to accomplish sense of a DC Authorities zoning map to win a legal combine of resident, commercial, and blended employ home as I planned a walking survey route. Data provide: DC Authorities.

8.3 miles, 301 MB of captured info, and one averted sing storm later it became as soon as time to initiate Up the prognosis. I made Up our minds to gaze APs particularly pretty than client units (non-AP STA) similar to telephones, laptops, printers, and IoT units. I did this for a pair reasons:

  • I figured if I focal level on APs I would possibly also win stats on Wi-Fi 6, Wi-Fi 6E, WPA3, and Management Body Safety (MFP) multi function space through Beacon frames. Additionally, identifying AP producers and models is gradually more straightforward since the BSSID can most likely infer the producer and in general times dealer particular info shall be newest in Beacon frames that would possibly checklist producer and model info.
  • American citizens customarily are inclined to exchange their smartphones every 2–2.5 years. In step with ScientiaMobile’s Mobile Overview Describe (MOVR) for 2021-Q4 (October-December 2021), no longer lower than 17.37% of North American telephones are Wi-Fi 6 devoted. That quantity is most likely mighty elevated in the USA particularly and grew in 2022-Q4, especially following the tip 3 Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) in the country promoting tool commerce-ins for fresh telephones supporting Wi-Fi 6. Have to you got a phone in the US since late 2019/early 2020 to newest there’s a legal likelihood it’s most likely you’ll perchance moreover very well be able to make employ of Wi-Fi 6. I trust smartphone Wi-Fi 6 adoption has been progressing well. Being able to win quarterly info on tool gross sales and employ for telephones isn’t customarily laborious to catch. What I’m unprecedented about is how many telephones aren’t able to accomplish potentially the most of Wi-Fi 6 ensuing from they don’t have any APs to join to.
  • Given the upward thrust of localized MAC contend with utilization in cellular client units fancy telephones, capsules, and laptops, tool identification and de-duplication is somewhat trickier. Plus, given about a of the technical challenges in taking pictures a selected client/AP Handy resource Unit (RU), it’s perfect to retain a ways from the client standpoint.
  • Finding units and guaranteeing a legal sample shall be more straightforward both the collector and collectee aren’t both transferring. I query of most APs that I got here across to be static from my standpoint as I walked by but I trust I’ll procure some exceptions fancy in-automobile Wi-Fi networks and cellular community hotspots.
  • I have a theory that given the financial cost and strength cost of more fresh Wi-Fi chips, IoT units most likely aren’t riding the adoption of Wi-Fi 6. My pondering is that such instruments most likely makes employ of older, cheaper, more mighty, and never more immediate Wi-Fi standards fancy IEEE 802.11b/g/n (if the instruments makes employ of Wi-Fi at all in lieu of Bluetooth Low Energy or Zigbee). The WFA’s info backs this Up too — the tip three classes of certified products had been Routers (1119), Phones (655), and Computers & Accessories (293). A canvas of the tip selling home & consumer IoT units in the USA confirmed my hunch. Easiest one tool I got here across helps Wi-Fi 6, the Amazon Fire TV Stick 4K Max — 1st Gen (2021).

After settling on Beacon frames entirely I started preparing the records. I return and forth on my prognosis instruments, alternating between the utilization of Wireshark itself and exporting the records and exploring it with Microsoft Excel or Jupyter Notebook.

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Plotting a random sample of found APs that have GPS coordinates in their frame from Kismet (n=3000).

Finding High Efficiency (HE) Wi-Fi, successfully

All the plot in which through my survey I got here across 40,886 unprecedented BSSIDs. Of these, 8,622 (21.09%) listed HE Capability and HE Operation Data Capabilities (IEs) in Beacon frames, identifying them as Wi-Fi 6 devoted STAs. Successfully, one in five APs I walked by would possibly abet Wi-Fi 6. About 16.2% of Wi-Fi 6 devoted STAs advertised abet for Receive admission to Network Query Protocol (ANQP) that plot extra info concerning the STA similar to its venue’s name, domain name, operator’s name, and authentication crucial suggestions would possibly doubtlessly be queried.

The producers of the Wi-Fi 6 APs that I would possibly definitively unravel are:

  • ARRIS Group, Inc. (and Ruckus Wi-fi)
  • ASUSTek COMPUTER INC.
  • Arcadyan Corporation
  • Belkin World Inc.
  • Cisco Programs, Inc. (and Cisco Meraki)
  • EnGenius Applied sciences, Inc.
  • Indecent Networks, Inc.
  • Fortinet, Inc.
  • Hewlett Packard Enterprise (and Aruba)
  • Mist Programs, Inc. (a Juniper Firm)
  • Netgear
  • Nokia Choices and Networks GmbH & Co. KG
  • Novatel Wi-fi Choices, Inc.
  • Originate Mesh, Inc.
  • Pepwave Restricted
  • Starry, Inc.
  • TP-Hyperlink Corporation Restricted
  • Technicolor CH USA Inc.
  • Ubiquiti Networks Inc.
  • Zyxel Communications Corporation
  • eero inc. (an Amazon firm)

Having a explore at MAC capabilities for a HE community.

procure through Wireshark: wlan.model.amount==255 && wlan.ext_tag.amount==35 && wlan.ext_tag.amount==36

Any Wi-Fi 6E?

Of the 62 unprecedented products that are certified as Wi-Fi 6E validated, 31 of them are units that aren’t telephones or computer systems and I didn’t come upon any in my survey. Granted, I wasn’t scanning for six GHz channels but no HE community I got here across listed 6 GHz info as being newest in HE Operation parameters.

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Making an attempt to procure Wi-Fi 6E networks through HE Operation parameters from 2.4 & 5 GHz spectrum assortment.

procure through Wireshark (from 2.4 & 5 GHz spectrum channel assortment): wlan.ext_tag.he_operation.6ghz_operation_information_present==1

But wait!

There are a pair caveats and suggestions of clarification surrounding packet expend and prognosis:

  • I’d on occasion verbalize this Wi-Fi expend and prognosis task as scientific. It became as soon as a really perfect effort strive and stare what stage of tool utilization became as soon as detectable in a given city space from a straightforward survey. There had been many variables I didn’t retain watch over for and my plot of sampling can had been skewed by things like constructing occupancy/utilization rates, tenant/proprietor wealth, day time of expend, assortment dwell time, and form of constructions newest on the route.
  • As a result of Wi-Fi 6’s employ of Orthogonal frequency-division a pair of win entry to (OFDMA) some info can have been overlooked by the monitoring card which wasn’t necessarily shut to the AP or the client tool. While this is able to moreover very well be correct if I became as soon as trying to rep a rotund, uninterrupted info circulation of all AP traffic this isn’t a discipline with Beacon frames. It’s a ways a ways more most likely that I would have overlooked networks ensuing from signal attenuation or ensuing from Kismet became as soon as channel hopping. Given my configuration it takes Kismet about 19 seconds to cycle through all 93 channel/channel-width combinations. In that time I’d conceal about 70–90 toes of distance. There had been also dwell times as I waited at intersections or for autos to enter/leave alleys and garages.
  • Kismet became as soon as no longer collecting on all most likely channels/channel widths so it’s miles feasible some networks (e.g., 160 MHz HE STAs) had been overlooked.

I’m including the rotund checklist of hardware and plan I frail to accomplish the survey kit besides to the usual instructions I frail to configure the plan.

Hardware Checklist

Tool Checklist

Equipment Configuration

General Gadget Configuration

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# actual exchange -y
# actual beef Up -y
# wget -O https://www.kismetwireless.win/repos/kismet-open.gpg.key | actual-key add –
# echo ‘deb https://www.kismetwireless.win/repos/actual/open/focal focal predominant’ | tee /and an excellent deal of others/actual/sources.checklist.d/kismet.checklist
# actual exchange
# actual set Up kismet gpsd gpsd-clients openssh-server
# systemctl enable ssh
# systemctl enable gpsd
# systemctl enable kismet

Kismet (/and an excellent deal of others/kismet/kismet.conf) — edit

gps=gpsd:host=localhost,port=2947
provide=wlo1 # exchange with your Intel AX200 interface if numerous

udev (/and an excellent deal of others/udev/suggestions.d/80-gps.suggestions) — assemble + add

SUBSYSTEM==”usb”, ACTION=”add”, ATTRS{idVendor}==”067b”, ATTRS{idProduct}==”2303″, NAME=”gps”

gpsd (/and an excellent deal of others/defaults/gpsd) — edit

GPSD_OPTIONS=”-D 5 -n /dev/gps1″

cloud-init (/and an excellent deal of others/netplan/50-cloud-init.yaml) — assemble + add

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community:
version: 2
ethernets:
{ETHERNET INTERFACE NAME}:
dhcp4: correct
addresses: [{IP ADDRESS OF SBC}/24]
match:
macaddress: {ETHERNET MAC ADDRESS OF SBC}
place apart of living-name: {ETHERNET INTERFACE NAME}

Effect it’s most likely you’ll have any questions, feedback, positive feedback, or things to discuss? Please free feel to DM me through Twitter @wirelessbits_!

In a future post I opinion to study and bid about the safety aspects (e.g., WPA3 & Management Body Safety utilization) of the community info I aloof.

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