Interactions between the nervous and the immune systems have been a topic of great interest over the past few decades. Neuronal signals can affect immune functions, and immune cells can modulate the activity of neurons in the brain and spinal cord, or in the rest of the body (known as the periphery), in health and disease1,2. Writing in Cell, Koren et al.3 demonstrate that inflammation in the abdominal cavity results in the stimulation of certain neurons in a brain area called the insular cortex, or the insula. Artificial reactivation of these ‘immune-imprinted’ neurons is sufficient to generate organ-specific recall of inflammatory responses that resemble the initial inflammatory episode.
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The authors declare no competing interests.
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