Gloomy, the uncompromising Python code formatter, is stable

Gloomy, the uncompromising Python code formatter, is stable

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The Uncompromising Code Formatter

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License: MIT
Code style: black

“Any color you esteem.”

Gloomy is the uncompromising Python code formatter. By the use of it, you compromise to cede
motivate an eye on over trivialities of hand-formatting. In return, Gloomy offers you velocity,
determinism, and freedom from pycodestyle nagging about formatting. You will set time
and mental vitality for more vital issues.

Blackened code looks to be just like the identical no matter the project you is doubtless to be studying. Formatting
becomes clear after a while and you might well focal point on the remark material as an replacement.

Gloomy makes code evaluate faster by producing the smallest diffs that you just might well deem.

Are trying it out now the use of the Gloomy Playground. Watch the
PyCon 2019 consult with learn more.

Learn the documentation on ReadTheDocs!

Set up and usage

Set up

Gloomy might well furthermore fair even be establish aside in by working pip set up gloomy. It requires Python 3.6.2+ to
plug. In case you exercise to prefer to layout Jupyter Notebooks, set up with pip set up gloomy[jupyter].

In case you can’t reside up for the latest hotness and are looking to set up from GitHub, use:

pip set up git+


To starting up correct away with shimmering defaults:

gloomy {source_file_or_directory}

That you just might well plug Gloomy as a kit if working it as a script would now not work:

python -m gloomy {source_file_or_directory}

Additional recordsdata might well furthermore fair even be stumbled on in our docs:

  • Utilization and Configuration

Gloomy is already efficiently venerable by many
projects, limited and immense. Gloomy has a entire take a look at suite, with efficient parallel
assessments, and our hold auto formatting and parallel Actual Integration runner. Now that
we now modified into stable, you mustn’t quiz vast formatting to adjustments in the long plug.
Stylistic adjustments will largely be responses to worm reviews and red meat up for current Python
syntax. For more recordsdata please consult with the
The Gloomy Code Vogue.

Furthermore, as a preventive measure which slows down processing, Gloomy will take a look at that the
reformatted code mild produces a counseled AST that is effectively the same to the
well-liked (peek the
portion for vital aspects). In case you is doubtless to be feeling confident, use --instant.

The Gloomy code trend

Gloomy is a PEP 8 compliant opinionated formatter. Gloomy reformats entire recordsdata in
space. Vogue configuration alternate choices are deliberately restricted and seldom added. It would now not
seize previous formatting into sage (peek Pragmatism for exceptions).

Our documentation covers the latest Gloomy code trend, however deliberate adjustments to it are
also documented. They’re both price taking a gaze:

  • The Gloomy Code Vogue: Present trend
  • The Gloomy Code Vogue: Future trend

Please consult with this doc before submitting a predicament. What looks esteem a worm is doubtless to be
meant behaviour.


Early variations of Gloomy venerable to be absolutist in some respects. They took after its
preliminary creator. This modified into as soon as gorgeous at the time as it made the implementation easier and
there had been now not many customers anyway. No longer many edge circumstances were reported. As a venerable tool,
Gloomy does form some exceptions to principles it otherwise holds.

  • The Gloomy code trend: Pragmatism

Please consult with this doc before submitting a predicament actual esteem with the doc
above. What looks esteem a worm is doubtless to be meant behaviour.


Gloomy is ready to read project-suppose default values for its present line alternate choices
from a pyproject.toml file. Here’s particularly vital for specifying custom
--embody and --exclude/--force-exclude/--lengthen-exclude patterns for your

It’s likely you’ll receive more vital aspects in our documentation:

  • The basics: Configuration by strategy of a file

And whilst you happen to is doubtless to be buying for more standard configuration documentation:

  • Utilization and Configuration

Pro-tip: In case you is doubtless to be asking your self “Diagram I prefer to configure something?” the acknowledge is
“No”. Gloomy is all about shimmering defaults. Making use of those defaults will appreciate your
code in compliance with many other Gloomy formatted projects.

Veteran by

The following necessary open-source projects have faith Gloomy with implementing a consistent
code trend: pytest, tox, Pyramid, Django Channels, Hypothesis, attrs, SQLAlchemy,
Poetry, PyPA functions (Warehouse, Bandersnatch, Pipenv, virtualenv), pandas, Pillow,
Twisted, LocalStack, every Datadog Agent Integration, Dwelling Assistant, Zulip, Kedro,
OpenOA, FLORIS, ORBIT, WOMBAT, and heaps more.

The following organizations use Gloomy: Fb, Dropbox, KeepTruckin, Mozilla, Quora,
Duolingo, QuantumBlack, Tesla.

Are we lacking anyone? Enable us to seize.


Mike Bayer, creator of SQLAlchemy:

I’m in a position to’t deem any single tool in my entire programming profession that has given me a
bigger productiveness lengthen by its introduction. I’m in a position to now make refactorings in about
1% of the keystrokes that it might well appreciate taken me beforehand after we had no scheme for
code to layout itself.

Dusty Phillips,

Gloomy is opinionated so you do now not have to be.

Hynek Schlawack, creator of attrs, core developer of
Twisted and CPython:

An auto-formatter that would now not suck is all I need for Xmas!

Carl Meyer, Django core developer:

No now not as a lot as the name is factual.

Kenneth Reitz, creator of requests and

This vastly improves the formatting of our code. Thanks a ton!

Level to your trend

Utilize the badge to your project’s

[![Code style: black](](

The use of the badge in README.rst:

.. image::

Appears to be like to be esteem this:
Code style: black




Welcome! Pleased to peek you sharp to form the project better. That you just might well starting up by
studying this:

  • Contributing: The basics

That you just might well furthermore seize a stare upon the remainder of the contributing docs or check with the

  • Contributing documentation
  • Chat on Discord

Switch log

The log has modified into moderately long. It moved to its hold file.



The creator checklist in all fairness long for the time being, so it lives in its hold file.


Code of Habits

All americans taking share in the Gloomy project, and in particular in the inform tracker,
pull requests, and social media exercise, is predicted to rental other of us with respect
and more most regularly to follow the guidelines articulated in the
Python Community Code of Habits.

On the identical time, humor is encouraged. Really, standard familiarity with Monty Python’s
Flying Circus is predicted. We’re now not savages.

And whilst you happen to if truth be told prefer to slap anyone, make it with a fish while dancing.


At long ideal, Gloomy is now not any longer a beta product! Here’s the first non-beta starting up
and the first starting up covered by our current balance policy.


  • Clutch away Python 2 red meat up (#2740)
  • Introduce the --preview flag (#2752)


  • Deprecate --experimental-string-processing and stream the functionality below
    --preview (#2789)
  • For stubs, one blank line between class attributes and systems is now kept if there’s
    as a minimum one pre-existing blank line (#2736)
  • Gloomy now normalizes string prefix hiss (#2297)
  • Clutch away areas round vitality operators if both operands are easy (#2726)
  • Work round worm that causes unstable formatting in some circumstances in the presence of the
    magic trailing comma (#2807)
  • Utilize parentheses for attribute entry on decimal waft and int literals (#2799)
  • Create now not add whitespace for attribute entry on hexadecimal, binary, octal, and advanced
    literals (#2799)
  • Treat blank traces in stubs the identical inside high-stage if statements (#2820)
  • Fix unstable formatting with semicolons and arithmetic expressions (#2817)
  • Fix unstable formatting round magic trailing comma (#2572)


  • Fix mapping circumstances that non-public as-expressions, esteem case {"key": 1 | 2 as password}
  • Fix circumstances that non-public a few high-stage as-expressions, esteem case 1 as a, 2 as b
  • Fix name patterns that non-public as-expressions with keyword arguments, esteem
    case Foo(bar=baz as quux) (#2749)
  • Tuple unpacking on return and yield constructs now implies 3.8+ (#2700)
  • Unparenthesized tuples on annotated assignments (e.g
    values: Tuple[int, ...] = 1, 2, 3) now implies 3.8+ (#2708)
  • Fix facing of standalone match() or case() when there’s a trailing newline or a
    comment inside the parentheses. (#2760)
  • from __future__ import annotations assertion now implies Python 3.7+ (#2690)


  • Hump-up the current backtracking parser about 4X in standard (enabled when
    --aim-version is residing to some.10 and higher). (#2728)
  • Gloomy is now compiled with mypyc for an total 2x
    velocity-up. 64-bit Dwelling windows, MacOS, and Linux (now not including musl) are supported. (#1009,


  • Diagram now not accumulate bare carriage return line endings in pyproject.toml (#2408)
  • Add configuration chance (python-cell-magics) to layout cells with custom magics in
    Jupyter Notebooks (#2744)
  • Enable setting custom cache checklist on all platforms with ambiance variable
    BLACK_CACHE_DIR (#2739).
  • Enable Python 3.10+ by default, with none additional prefer to specify
    --aim-version=py310. (#2758)
  • Diagram passing SRC or --code vital and mutually uncommon (#2804)


  • Improve error message for invalid fashioned expression (#2678)
  • Improve error message when parsing fails in the future of AST safety take a look at by embedding the
    underlying SyntaxError (#2693)
  • No longer color diff headers white as it be unreadable in mild themed terminals
  • Text coloring added in the final statistics (#2712)
  • Verbose mode also now describes how a project root modified into as soon as stumbled on and which paths will
    be formatted. (#2526)


  • All higher version bounds on dependencies had been removed (#2718)
  • typing-extensions is now not any longer a required dependency in Python 3.10+ (#2772)
  • Method click on lower trek to 8.0.0 (#2791)


  • Update GitHub motion to red meat up containerized runs (#2748)


  • Switch protocol in pip installation instructions to https:// (#2761)
  • Switch HTML theme to Furo essentially for its responsive receive and cell red meat up
  • Deprecate the gloomy-primer tool (#2809)
  • Doc Python red meat up policy (#2819)



  • Fix choice of f-string expression spans (#2654)
  • Fix putrid formatting of error messages about EOF in multi-line statements (#2343)
  • Capabilities and lessons in blocks now appreciate more consistent surrounding spacing (#2472)

Jupyter Notebook red meat up

  • Cell magics are if truth be told biggest processed in the event that they are identified Python cell magics. Earlier, all
    cell magics were tokenized, resulting in that you just might well deem indentation errors e.g. with
    %%writefile. (#2630)
  • Fix project to ambiance variables in Jupyter Notebooks (#2642)

Python 3.10 red meat up

  • Level customers to the use of --aim-version py310 if we detect 3.10-biggest syntax (#2668)
  • Fix match statements with open sequence topics, esteem match a, b: or
    match a, *b: (#2639) (#2659)
  • Fix match/case statements that non-public match/case tender key phrases a few
    times, esteem match re.match() (#2661)
  • Fix case statements with an inline physique (#2665)
  • Fix styling of starred expressions inside match subject (#2667)
  • Fix parser error space on invalid syntax in a match assertion (#2649)
  • Fix Python 3.10 red meat up on platforms with out ProcessPoolExecutor (#2631)
  • Improve parsing performance on code that makes use of match below --aim-version py310
    as a lot as ~50% (#2670)


  • Clutch away dependency on regex (#2644) (#2663)



  • Bumped regex version minimal to 2021.4.4 to repair Sample class usage (#2621)



  • Warn about Python 2 deprecation in extra circumstances by enhancing Python 2 biggest syntax
    detection (#2592)
  • Add experimental PyPy red meat up (#2559)
  • Add partial red meat up for the match assertion. As it be experimental, it be biggest enabled
    when --aim-version py310 is explicitly specified (#2586)
  • Add red meat up for parenthesized with (#2586)
  • Portray red meat up for Python 3.10 for working Gloomy (#2562)


  • Fastened vim plugin with Python 3.10 by hunting down deprecated distutils import (#2610)
  • The vim plugin now parses skip_magic_trailing_comma from pyproject.toml (#2613)



  • Doc balance policy, that can follow for non-beta releases (#2529)
  • Add current --workers parameter (#2514)
  • Fastened feature detection for positional-biggest arguments in lambdas (#2532)
  • Bumped typed-ast version minimal to 1.4.3 for 3.10 compatibility (#2519)
  • Fastened a Python 3.10 compatibility inform the build the loop argument modified into as soon as mild being handed
    even though it has been removed (#2580)
  • Deprecate Python 2 formatting red meat up (#2523)


  • Clutch away dependency on aiohttp-cors (#2500)
  • Bump required aiohttp version to some.7.4 (#2509)


  • Add primer red meat up for –projects (#2555)
  • Print primer summary after particular person failures (#2570)


  • Enable to pass target_version in the vim plugin (#1319)
  • Install manufacture tools in docker file and use multi-stage manufacture to motivate the image dimension
    down (#2582)



  • Fix lacking modules in self-contained binaries (#2466)
  • Fix lacking toml additional venerable in the future of installation (#2475)



  • Add red meat up for formatting Jupyter Notebook recordsdata (#2357)
  • Circulation from appdirs dependency to platformdirs (#2375)
  • Present a more particular person-qualified error if .gitignore is invalid (#2414)
  • The failsafe for by chance added backslashes in f-string expressions has been
    hardened to address more edge circumstances in the future of quote normalization (#2437)
  • Steer clear of altering a operate return form annotation’s form to a tuple by adding a
    trailing comma (#2384)
  • Parsing red meat up has been added for unparenthesized walruses in residing literals, residing
    comprehensions, and indices (#2447).
  • Pin setuptools-scm manufacture-time dependency version (#2457)
  • Exclude typing-extensions version due to it being broken on Python 3.10


  • Substitute sys.exit(-1) with elevate ImportError as it performs more neatly with tools that
    scan establish aside in packages (#2440)


  • The equipped pre-commit hooks now not specify language_version to reside far off from overriding
    default_language_version (#2430)



  • Configuration recordsdata the use of TOML aspects higher than spec v0.5.0 are if truth be told supported
  • Add primer red meat up and take a look at for code piped into gloomy by strategy of STDIN (#2315)
  • Fix inside error when FORCE_OPTIONAL_PARENTHESES feature is enabled (#2332)
  • Accept empty stdin (#2346)
  • Provide a more vital error when parsing fails in the future of AST safety exams (#2304)


  • Add current latest_release imprint automation to follow latest gloomy starting up on docker
    photos (#2374)


  • The vim plugin now searches upwards from the checklist containing the latest buffer
    as an replacement of the latest working checklist for pyproject.toml. (#1871)
  • The vim plugin now reads doubtlessly the most important string normalization chance in pyproject.toml
  • The vim plugin now not crashes Gloomy when there’s boolean values in pyproject.toml



  • Fix failure caused by fmt: skip and indentation (#2281)
  • Epic for += project when deciding whether or to now not interrupt up string (#2312)
  • Merely max string dimension calculation when there are string operators (#2292)
  • Fastened chance usage when the use of the --code flag (#2259)
  • Diagram now not name uvloop.set up() when Gloomy is venerable as a library (#2303)
  • Added --required-version chance to require a particular version to be working (#2300)
  • Fix inaccurate custom breakpoint indices when string neighborhood includes spurious f-strings
  • Fix regression the build R prefixes might well be lowercased for docstrings (#2285)
  • Fix facing of named escapes (N{...}) when --experimental-string-processing is
    venerable (#2319)


  • The legit Gloomy motion now helps picking what version to make use of, and helps the
    essential 3 OSes. (#1940)



  • A house is now not any longer inserted into empty docstrings (#2249)
  • Fix facing of .gitignore recordsdata containing non-ASCII characters on Dwelling windows (#2229)
  • Appreciate .gitignore recordsdata in all levels, now not biggest root/.gitignore file (follow
    .gitignore principles esteem git does) (#2225)
  • Restored compatibility with Click 8.0 on Python 3.6 when LANG=C venerable (#2227)
  • Add additional uvloop set up + import red meat up if in python env (#2258)
  • Fix –experimental-string-processing crash when matching parens are now not stumbled on (#2283)
  • Be high-quality that to interrupt up traces that starting up with a string operator (#2286)
  • Fix fashioned expression that gloomy makes use of to name f-expressions (#2287)


  • Add a lower trek for the aiohttp-cors dependency. Finest 0.4.0 or higher is
    supported. (#2231)


  • Free up self-contained x86_64 MacOS binaries as share of the GitHub starting up pipeline
  • Repeatedly manufacture binaries with the latest on hand Python (#2260)


  • Add discussion of magic feedback to FAQ net page (#2272)
  • --experimental-string-processing will more than doubtless be enabled by default in the long plug (#2273)
  • Fix typos stumbled on by codespell (#2228)
  • Fix Vim plugin installation instructions. (#2235)
  • Add current Often Asked Questions net page (#2247)
  • Fix encoding + symlink points combating right manufacture on Dwelling windows (#2262)



  • Refactor src/gloomy/ into many recordsdata (#2206)


  • Replaced all ideal references to the
    grasp division with the
    essential division. Some extra adjustments in
    the source code were also made. (#2210)
  • Sigificantly reorganized the documentation to form far more sense. Check them out by
    heading over to the stable docs on RTD.



  • Method --pyi mode if --stdin-filename ends in .pyi (#2169)
  • Quit detecting aim version as Python 3.9+ with pre-PEP-614 decorators that are
    being known as however with out a arguments (#2182)


  • Add --no-diff to gloomy-primer to suppress formatting adjustments (#2187)



  • Fix crash if the particular person configuration checklist is inaccessible. (#2158)

  • Clarify
    in which Gloomy might well furthermore fair commerce the AST (#2159)

  • Enable .gitignore principles to be overridden by specifying exclude in pyproject.toml
    or on the present line. (#2170)


  • Install primer.json (venerable by gloomy-primer by default) with gloomy. (#2154)



  • Fix crash on docstrings ending with ” “. (#2142)

  • Fix crash when unusual whitespace is cleaned out of dostrings (#2120)

  • Replicate the --skip-magic-trailing-comma and --experimental-string-processing flags
    in the name of the cache file. Without this fix, adjustments in these flags would now not seize
    reside if the cache had already been populated. (#2131)

  • Create now not seize away mandatory parentheses from project expression containing deliver /
    return statements. (#2143)


  • Bump pathspec to >= 0.8.1 to solve invalid .gitignore exclusion facing



  • Fastened a rare however disturbing formatting instability created by the combination of
    non-compulsory trailing commas inserted by Gloomy and non-compulsory parentheses taking a stare upon
    pre-existing “magic” trailing commas. This fixes inform #1629 and all of its many many
    duplicates. (#2126)

  • Gloomy now processes one-line docstrings by stripping main and trailing areas,
    and adding a padding house when wished to interrupt up “”””. (#1740)

  • Gloomy now cleans up main non-breaking areas in feedback (#2092)

  • Gloomy now respects --skip-string-normalization when normalizing multiline
    docstring quotes (#1637)

  • Gloomy now not removes all empty traces between non-operate code and decorators
    when formatting typing stubs. Now Gloomy enforces a single empty line. (#1646)

  • Gloomy now not provides an inaccurate house after a parenthesized project expression
    in if/while statements (#1655)

  • Added --skip-magic-trailing-comma / -C to reside far off from the use of trailing commas as a reason
    to interrupt up traces (#1824)

  • fastened a crash when PWD=/ on POSIX (#1631)

  • fastened “I/O operation on closed file” when the use of –diff (#1664)

  • Quit coloured diff output being interleaved with a few recordsdata (#1673)

  • Added red meat up for PEP 614 relaxed decorator syntax on python 3.9 (#1711)

  • Added parsing red meat up for unparenthesized tuples and yield expressions in annotated
    assignments (#1835)

  • added --lengthen-exclude argument (PR #2005)

  • velocity up caching by warding off pathlib (#1950)

  • --diff appropriately indicates when a file would now not consequence in a newline (#1662)

  • Added --stdin-filename argument to allow stdin to respect --force-exclude principles

  • Traces ending with fmt: skip will now be now not formatted (#1800)

  • PR #2053: Gloomy now not relies on typed-ast for Python 3.8 and higher

  • PR #2053: Python 2 red meat up is now non-compulsory, set up with
    python3 -m pip set up gloomy[python2] to withhold red meat up.

  • Exclude venv checklist by default (#1683)

  • Fastened “Gloomy produced code that is now not the same to the source” when formatting
    Python 2 docstrings (#2037)


  • Self-contained native Gloomy binaries are if truth be told equipped for releases by strategy of GitHub
    Releases (#1743)



  • explicitly rely on Click 7.1.2 or more moderen as Gloomy now not works with variations
    older than 7.0



  • re-applied red meat up for suppose trailing commas: now it works consistently within
    any bracket pair, including nested buildings (#1288 and duplicates)

  • Gloomy now reindents docstrings when reindenting code round it (#1053)

  • Gloomy now presentations coloured diffs (#1266)

  • Gloomy is now packaged the use of ‘py3’ tagged wheels (#1388)

  • Gloomy now helps Python 3.8 code, e.g. big name expressions in return statements

  • Gloomy now not normalizes capital R-string prefixes as those appreciate a
    neighborhood-authorised that implies (#1244)

  • Gloomy now makes use of exit code 2 when specified configuration file would now not exit (#1361)

  • Gloomy now works on AWS Lambda (#1141)

  • added --force-exclude argument (#1032)

  • removed deprecated --py36 chance (#1236)

  • fastened --diff output when EOF is encountered (#526)

  • fastened # fmt: off facing round decorators (#560)

  • fastened unstable formatting with some # form: ignore feedback (#1113)

  • fastened invalid elimination on organizing brackets adopted by indexing (#1575)

  • launched gloomy-primer, a CI tool that permits us to plug regression assessments in opposition to
    existing open source customers of Gloomy (#1402)

  • launched property-essentially based fuzzing to our take a look at suite essentially based on Hypothesis and
    Hypothersmith (#1566)

  • applied experimental and disabled by default long string rewrapping (#1132),
    hidden below a --experimental-string-processing flag while it be being labored on;
    here is an undocumented and unsupported feature, you lose Web aspects for
    looking on it (#1609)

Vim plugin

  • exercise virtualenv packages over global packages (#1383)


  • added red meat up for PEP 572 project expressions (#711)

  • added red meat up for PEP 570 positional-biggest arguments (#943)

  • added red meat up for async generators (#593)

  • added red meat up for pre-splitting collections by striking an suppose trailing comma
    inside (#826)

  • added gloomy -c to be ready to layout code handed from the present line (#761)

  • –stable now works with Python 2 code (#840)

  • fastened grammar selection for Python 2-suppose code (#765)

  • fastened feature detection for trailing commas in operate definitions and make contact with sites

  • # fmt: off/# fmt: on comment pairs placed a few times within the identical block of
    code now behave appropriately (#1005)

  • Gloomy now not crashes on Dwelling windows machines with more than 61 cores (#838)

  • Gloomy now not crashes on standalone feedback prepended with a backslash (#767)

  • Gloomy now not crashes on fromimport blocks with feedback (#829)

  • Gloomy now not crashes on Python 3.7 on some platform configurations (#494)

  • Gloomy now not fails on feedback in from-imports (#671)

  • Gloomy now not fails when the file starts with a backslash (#922)

  • Gloomy now not merges fashioned feedback with form feedback (#1027)

  • Gloomy now not splits long traces that non-public form feedback (#997)

  • removed pointless parentheses round yield expressions (#834)

  • added parentheses round long tuples in unpacking assignments (#832)

  • added parentheses round complex powers after they are prefixed by a unary operator

  • fastened worm that led Gloomy layout some code with a line dimension aim of 1 (#762)

  • Gloomy now not introduces quotes in f-string subexpressions on string boundaries

  • if Gloomy places parenthesis round a single expression, it strikes feedback to the
    wrapped expression as an replacement of after the brackets (#872)

  • blackd now returns the version of Gloomy in the response headers (#1013)

  • blackd can now output the diff of formats on source code when the X-Diff header is
    equipped (#969)


  • current chance --aim-version to manipulate which Python variations Gloomy-formatted code
    might well furthermore fair mild aim (#618)

  • deprecated --py36 (use --aim-version=py36 as an replacement) (#724)

  • Gloomy now not normalizes numeric literals to embody _ separators (#696)

  • long del statements are if truth be told shatter up into a few traces (#698)

  • form feedback are now not any longer mangled in operate signatures

  • improved performance of formatting deeply nested recordsdata buildings (#509)

  • Gloomy now neatly formats a few recordsdata in parallel on Dwelling windows (#632)

  • Gloomy now creates cache recordsdata atomically which permits it to be venerable in parallel
    pipelines (esteem xargs -P8) (#673)

  • Gloomy now appropriately indents feedback in recordsdata that were beforehand formatted with
    tabs (#262)

  • blackd now helps CORS (#622)


  • numeric literals are if truth be told formatted by Gloomy (#452, #461, #464, #469):

    • numeric literals are normalized to embody _ separators on Python 3.6+ code

    • added --skip-numeric-underscore-normalization to disable the above behavior and
      leave numeric underscores as they were in the enter

    • code with _ in numeric literals is identified as Python 3.6+

    • most letters in numeric literals are lowercased (e.g., in 1e10, 0x01)

    • hexadecimal digits are consistently uppercased (e.g. 0xBADC0DE)

  • added blackd, peek
    its documentation for
    more info (#349)

  • adjoining string literals are if truth be told appropriately shatter up into a few traces (#463)

  • trailing comma is now added to single imports that set now not fit on a line (#250)

  • cache is now populated when --take a look at is high-quality for a file which hurries up
    consecutive exams of neatly formatted unmodified recordsdata (#448)

  • whitespace initially of the file is now removed (#399)

  • fastened mangling pweave and
    Spyder IDE special feedback (#532)

  • fastened unstable formatting when unpacking immense tuples (#267)

  • fastened parsing of __future__ imports with renames (#389)

  • fastened scope of # fmt: off when at the moment preceding yield and other nodes (#385)

  • fastened formatting of lambda expressions with default arguments (#468)

  • fastened async for statements: Gloomy now not breaks them into separate traces (#372)

  • uncover: the Vim plugin stopped registering ,= as a default chord as it modified into out to
    be a putrid idea (#415)


  • hotfix: don’t freeze when a few feedback at the moment precede # fmt: off (#371)


  • typing stub recordsdata (.pyi) now appreciate blank traces added after constants (#340)

  • # fmt: off and # fmt: on are if truth be told far more exact:

    • they now work also within bracket pairs (#329)

    • they now appropriately work across operate/class boundaries (#335)

    • they now work when an indentation block starts with empty traces or misaligned
      feedback (#334)

  • made Click now not fail on invalid environments; uncover that Click is correct however the
    likelihood we are going to prefer to entry non-ASCII file paths when facing Python source
    code is low (#277)

  • fastened unsuitable formatting of f-strings with quotes inside interpolated expressions

  • fastened pointless slowdown when long checklist literals the build stumbled on in a file

  • fastened pointless slowdown on AST nodes with very many siblings

  • fastened cannibalizing backslashes in the future of string normalization

  • fastened a crash due to symbolic links pointing outside of the project checklist (#338)


  • added --config (#65)

  • added -h the same to --motivate (#316)

  • fastened unsuitable unmodified file caching when -S modified into as soon as venerable

  • fastened additional house in string unpacking (#305)

  • fastened formatting of empty triple quoted strings (#313)

  • fastened pointless slowdown in comment placement calculation on traces with out feedback


  • hotfix: don’t output human-facing recordsdata on stdout (#299)

  • hotfix: don’t output cake emoji on non-zero return code (#300)


  • added --embody and --exclude (#270)

  • added --skip-string-normalization (#118)

  • added --verbose (#283)

  • the header output in --diff now if truth be told conforms to the unified diff spec

  • fastened long trivial assignments being wrapped in pointless parentheses (#273)

  • fastened pointless parentheses when a line contained multiline strings (#232)

  • fastened stdin facing now not working appropriately if an venerable version of Click modified into as soon as venerable (#276)

  • Gloomy now preserves line endings when formatting a file in space (#258)


  • added --pyi (#249)

  • added --py36 (#249)

  • Python grammar pickle caches are saved with the formatting caches, making Gloomy
    work in environments the build build of residing-packages is now not particular person-writable (#192)

  • Gloomy now enforces a PEP 257 empty line after a class-stage docstring (and/or
    fields) and the first means

  • fastened invalid code produced when standalone feedback were point out in a trailer that
    modified into as soon as neglected from line splitting on an infinite expression (#237)

  • fastened non-compulsory parentheses being removed within # fmt: off sections (#224)

  • fastened invalid code produced when stars in very long imports were incorrectly wrapped
    in non-compulsory parentheses (#234)

  • fastened unstable formatting when inline feedback were moved round in a trailer that modified into as soon as
    neglected from line splitting on an infinite expression (#238)

  • fastened additional empty line between a class declaration and the first means if no class
    docstring or fields are point out (#219)

  • fastened additional empty line between a operate signature and an inside operate or inside
    class (#196)


  • name chains are if truth be told formatted essentially based on the
    fluent interfaces trend (#67)

  • recordsdata construction literals (tuples, lists, dictionaries, and sets) are if truth be told also consistently
    exploded esteem imports after they don’t fit in a single line (#152)

  • slices are if truth be told formatted essentially based on PEP 8 (#178)

  • parentheses are if truth be told also managed robotically on the correct-hand facet of assignments
    and return statements (#140)

  • math operators now use their respective priorities for delimiting multiline
    expressions (#148)

  • non-compulsory parentheses are if truth be told neglected on expressions that starting up or reside with a bracket
    and biggest non-public a single operator (#177)

  • empty parentheses in a class definition are if truth be told removed (#145, #180)

  • string prefixes are if truth be told standardized to lowercase and u is removed on Python 3.6+
    biggest code and Python 2.7+ code with the unicode_literals future import (#188, #198,

  • typing stub recordsdata (.pyi) are if truth be told formatted in a trend that is in step with PEP
    484 (#207, #210)

  • development when reformatting many recordsdata is now reported incrementally

  • fastened trailers (remark material with brackets) being unnecessarily exploded into their very hold
    traces after a dedented closing bracket (#119)

  • fastened an invalid trailing comma most regularly left in imports (#185)

  • fastened non-deterministic formatting when a few pairs of removable parentheses were
    venerable (#183)

  • fastened multiline strings being unnecessarily wrapped in non-compulsory parentheses in long
    assignments (#215)

  • fastened now not splitting long from-imports with biggest a single name

  • fastened Python 3.6+ file discovery by also taking a stare upon operate calls with unpacking.
    This fastened non-deterministic formatting if trailing commas the build venerable both in operate
    signatures with stars and performance calls with stars however the venerable might well be
    reformatted to a single line.

  • fastened crash on facing non-compulsory parentheses (#193)

  • fastened “is”, “is now not”, “in”, and “now not in” now not regarded as operators for splitting

  • fastened crash when ineffective symlinks the build encountered


  • don’t populate the cache on --take a look at (#175)


  • added a “cache”; recordsdata already reformatted that have not modified on disk might well now not be
    reformatted as soon as more (#109)

  • --take a look at and --diff are now not any longer mutually uncommon (#149)

  • generalized big name expression facing, including double stars; this fixes
    multiplication making expressions “unsafe” for trailing commas (#132)

  • Gloomy now not enforces striking empty traces in the help of motivate an eye on drift statements (#90)

  • Gloomy now splits imports esteem “Mode 3 + trailing comma” of isort (#127)

  • fastened comment indentation when a standalone comment closes a block (#16, #32)

  • fastened standalone feedback receiving additional empty traces if at the moment preceding a
    class, def, or decorator (#56, #154)

  • fastened --diff now not showing entire course (#130)

  • fastened parsing of complex expressions after big name and double stars in operate calls

  • fastened invalid splitting on comma in lambda arguments (#133)

  • fastened lacking splits of ternary expressions (#141)


  • fastened parsing of unaligned standalone feedback (#99, #112)

  • fastened placement of dictionary unpacking inside dictionary literals (#111)

  • Vim plugin now works on Dwelling windows, too

  • fastened unstable formatting when encountering unnecessarily escaped quotes in a string


  • added --mild (#78)

  • added computerized parentheses management (#4)

  • added pre-commit integration (#103, #104)

  • fastened reporting on --take a look at with a few recordsdata (#101, #102)

  • fastened hunting down backslash escapes from raw strings (#100, #105)


  • added --diff (#87)

  • add line breaks before all delimiters, other than in circumstances esteem commas, to better comply
    with PEP 8 (#73)

  • standardize string literals to make use of double quotes (practically) all over (#75)

  • fastened facing of standalone feedback within nested bracketed expressions; Gloomy
    will now not make vast long traces or establish aside all standalone feedback at the tip of
    the expression (#22)

  • fastened 18.3a4 regression: don’t crash and burn on empty traces with trailing whitespace

  • fastened 18.3a4 regression: # yapf: disable usage as trailing comment would reason
    Gloomy to now not emit the remainder of the file (#95)

  • when CTRL+C is pressed while formatting many recordsdata, Gloomy now not freaks out with
    a flurry of asyncio-connected exceptions

  • biggest allow as a lot as 2 empty traces on module stage and biggest single empty traces within
    functions (#74)


  • # fmt: off and # fmt: on are applied (#5)

  • computerized detection of deprecated Python 2 kinds of print statements and exec
    statements in the formatted file (#49)

  • use right areas for complex expressions in default values of typed operate
    arguments (#60)

  • biggest return exit code 1 when –take a look at is venerable (#50)

  • don’t seize away single trailing commas from square bracket indexing (#59)

  • don’t omit whitespace if the previous ingredient leaf wasn’t a math operator (#55)

  • omit additional house in kwarg unpacking if it be the first argument (#46)

  • omit additional house in
    Sphinx auto-attribute feedback


  • don’t seize away single empty traces outside of bracketed expressions (#19)

  • added ability to pipe formatting from stdin to stdin (#25)

  • restored ability to layout code with legacy usage of async as a popularity (#20, #42)

  • even better facing of numpy-trend array indexing (#33, as soon as more)


  • modified positioning of binary operators to happen at foundation of traces as an replacement of at
    the tip, following
    a latest commerce to PEP 8

  • ignore empty bracket pairs while splitting. This avoids very weirdly taking a gaze
    formattings (#34, #35)

  • seize away a trailing comma if there’s a single argument to a name

  • if high stage functions were separated by a comment, don’t establish aside four empty traces after
    the higher operate

  • fastened unstable formatting of newlines with imports

  • fastened unintended folding of submit scriptum standalone feedback into ideal assertion
    if it modified into as soon as a easy assertion (#18, #28)

  • fastened lacking house in numpy-trend array indexing (#33)

  • fastened counterfeit house after big name-essentially based unary expressions (#31)


  • added --take a look at

  • biggest establish aside trailing commas in operate signatures and calls if it be stable to make so. If
    the file is Python 3.6+ it be consistently stable, otherwise biggest stable if there are now not any *args
    or kwargs venerable in the signature or name. (#8)

  • fastened invalid spacing of dots in relative imports (#6, #13)

  • fastened invalid splitting after comma on unpacked variables in for-loops (#23)

  • fastened counterfeit house in parenthesized residing expressions (#7)

  • fastened counterfeit house after opening parentheses and in default arguments (#14, #17)

  • fastened counterfeit house after unary operators when the operand modified into as soon as a elaborate expression


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“Simplicity, patience, compassion.
These three are your greatest treasures.
Simple in actions and thoughts, you return to the source of being.
Patient with both friends and enemies,
you accord with the way things are.
Compassionate toward yourself,
you reconcile all beings in the world.”
― Lao Tzu, Tao Te Ching

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