Digital Unwrapping of the Mummy of King Amenhotep I (1525–1504 BC) Using CT

45
Digital Unwrapping of the Mummy of King Amenhotep I (1525–1504 BC) Using CT

Introduction

Amenhotep I dominated Egypt for approximately 21 years (c.1525–1504 BC). He became as soon as the second king of the 18th Dynasty to ascend the throne after the death of his father Ahmose I. Amenhotep I will possess co-reigned with his mother Ahmose-Nefertari (1). The name Amenhotep diagram: β€œAmun is overjoyed”. His throne name became as soon as Djeserkare: β€œHoly is the Soul of Re”. During his reign, Amenhotep I apt the territories of Egypt; he led a marketing campaign to Kush and an expedition to Libya. Amenhotep I had a silent reign that enabled him to level of curiosity on the administrative group and price constructing work of temples. The easiest temples built by Amenhotep I became as soon as the temple of Amun at Karnak, a temple in Nubia at Sai, moreover to constructions in Higher Egypt at Elephantine, Kom Ombo, Abydos, and the Temple of Nekhbet. After his death, Amenhotep I and his mother possess been worshiped in Deir El Medina (2, 3).

The distinctive tomb of Amenhotep I has now no longer but been stumbled on nowa days. The mummy of Amenhotep I became as soon as stumbled on in 1881 at Deir el-Bahari Royal Cache in Luxor, the establish the officers of the 21st Dynasty hid the mummies of several Original Kingdom kings and nobles to offer protection to them from tomb robbers. The mummy of Amenhotep I became as soon as stumbled on wrapped internal a coffin (4). The hieroglyphic inscriptions on the coffin, dockets, confirmed the name of Amenhotep I and recorded the rewrapping of the mummy after being broken by grave robbers. The mummy of Amenhotep I has been rewrapped twice by the 21st Dynasty’s clergymen: by Pinedjem I, Theban High Priest of Amun, and a decade later by his son Masarharta (5–7).

Almost at present after its discovery, the mummy of Amenhotep I became as soon as moved from Deir el Bahari to Cairo and became as soon as first saved at Boulaq Museum, then moved to a palace in Giza (for Ismail Pasha). In 1902, the Royal mummies, including that of Amenhotep I, possess been moved to the Egyptian Museum at Tahrir in Cairo. The mummy of Amenhotep I became as soon as one amongst the very few royal mummies that possess now no longer been unwrapped by unique Egyptologists. Gaston Maspero, the director of antiquities in Egypt at that point, made up our minds to let the mummy remain untouched attributable to its ultimate wrapping thoroughly lined by garlands and its ravishing face cowl. When the coffin of Amenhotep I became as soon as opened, a preserved wasp became as soon as stumbled on, perchance attracted by the smell of garlands, and became as soon as trapped (8).

In February of 1932, an X-ray ogle of the mummy of Amenhotep I became as soon as carried out on the Cairo Egyptian Museum after the elimination of the mummy from its coffin. Douglas Derry, professor on the Kasr Al Ainy Faculty of Remedy in Cairo, interpreted the X-ray and estimated the age of death of Amenhotep I to be between 40 and 50 years. Derry recorded residue at some stage within the cranium and a itsy-bitsy amulet within the center of the lawful arm (9). In 1967, the Michigan College expedition X-rayed the mummy of Amenhotep I. The X-rays estimated the age at death of Amenhotep I to be about 25 years. The age estimation became as soon as essentially based entirely on the coolest situation of the teeth with minimal attrition. On the other hand, the symphyseal surface which gives a extra excellent estimation of age, could well well now no longer be visualized. The radiological image showed a bead girdle on the King, the lawful forearm became as soon as considered flexed on the elbow and crossed the chest, while the broken left arm rested along the flank. The X-ray examinations of the mummy of King Amenhotep I failed to originate consistent files or detailed files on the mummy (10, 11).

In the unsightly x-ray examination, the 3-dimensional (3D) files of the mummy is projected onto a two-dimensional X-ray movie. The end result is the superimposition of objects and bones which makes mummy characterization much less succesful. CT is a advanced form of X-ray that obtains a total lot of thin sections (slices) of the physique and gives extra detailed reconstructed photos of soppy tissues moreover to bones. CT is a non-invasive modality that has been inclined to focus on regarding the mummies of several broken-down Egyptian royals. CT equipped bigger perception into the situation, mummification, health disorders, and cause of death of the mummy (12).

On this ogle, we hypothesized that the CT ogle of the wrapped mummy of Amenhotep I would give extra insights on the physical appearance, health, cause of death, and mummification of the King.

Offers and Methods

The mummy of Amenhotep I became as soon as positioned on the time of this ogle on the Gallery of Royal Mummies within the Cairo Egyptian Museum with the catalog code (JE 26211(b) CG 61058 SR 1/10194).

On Might per chance perchance 4, 2019, we transferred the mummy to the multi-detector CT scanning machine (Somatom Emotion 6; Siemens Medical Alternatives, Malvern, Pennsylvania, United States) build in on a truck within the backyard of the Cairo Egyptian Museum. The mummy became as soon as bodily inspected. We inclined the following CT parameters: kVp = 130 efficient mAs ranged from 23 to 63; pitch ranged from 0.83 to 1.8; self-discipline of test (FOV) from 350 to 500; slice thickness from 0.6 to 1.25 mm; and reconstruction from 0.4 to 0.8 mm. Axial photos possess been created. We inclined a selected visualization gadget (OsiriX, Pixmeo SARL, Bernex, Switzerland) that robotically created a 3D files situation. As soon as the latter became as soon as generated, the digital unwrapping of the mummy began by peeling off digital layers using scalpel tools and by changing the window ranges. We evaluated the CT photos for foreign objects and amulets and recorded their location and metric dimension (in mm). We analyzed the CT photos of the mummy to evaluate the preservation establish, age at death, and pathologies essentially based entirely on protocols printed sooner than (12–16). We measured the CT density of the objects in Hounsfield objects (HU) by putting a establish of hobby (ROI) at some stage within the thing. The fabric of the thing became as soon as resolute essentially based entirely on its HU measurements: metal (>2,978 HU); quartz/faience (1,693–2,317 HU), stones (about 2,900–2,500 HU), and fired clay (1,116 HU SD 54.7) (17). We correlated the CT findings of the mummy with the on hand archaeological files and old physical and radiological analysis.

Results

Physical Inspection of the Mummy

The mummy of Amenhotep I is wrapped in linen and lined from head to toes in floral garlands of red, yellow, and blue coloration. The pinnacle is roofed with a cowl constituted of painted wood and cartonnage. The face is painted pale yellow. The contour of the eyes and eyebrows are painted sad. The sad scrutinize pupil is product of obsidian crystals. On the forehead is a one after the other carved painted cobra with inlaid stones. The cartonnage on the chest establish is partly hidden by the overlying garlands and could well well now no longer be inspected (Resolve 1).


www.frontiersin.org

Resolve 1. Image of the mummy of Amenhotep I. (A) The image of the lawful lateral test of the mummy of Amenhotep I exhibits the physique fully wrapped in linen, lined from head to toes with floral garlands, and sporting a head cowl. (B) Image of the head cowl of the mummy of Amenhotep I product of painted wood and cartonnage. The face is painted in faint yellow. The contour of the eyes and eyebrows is painted sad. The eyes are inlaid with sad pupils product of obsidian crystals. On the forehead is a one after the other carved painted cobra of painted wood, inlaid stones, and cartonnage. The relaxation of the head cowl is partly hidden by floral garlands.

CT Respect of the Mummy

Digital Unwrapping

The 3D model of the wrapped mummy allowed the visualization of its diverse factor layers: the head cowl, the wrapping bandages, and the mummy. The digital unwrapping of the mummy by peeling off digital layers uncovered the skin and internal of the mummy and allowed us to ogle it in detail (Resolve 2).


www.frontiersin.org

Resolve 2. Three-d CT image of the head of the wrapped mummy of Amenhotep I in a left lateral test permits visualization of the factor layers: the cowl, the head of the mummy, and the encompassing bandages.

The mummy of Amenhotep I has an oval face with sunken eyes and collapsed cheeks. The nostril is itsy-bitsy, narrow, and flattened. The upper teeth are mildly protruding. The chin is narrow. The ears are itsy-bitsy; a itsy-bitsy piercing is illustrious within the lobule of the left ear. Few coiled hair locks are considered on the back and facets of the head (Resolve 3).


www.frontiersin.org

Resolve 3. Three-d CT image of the digitally unwrapped face of the mummy Amenhotep I. (A) Three-d CT image of the entrance of the face of Amenhotep I and (B) Three-d CT image of the left profile of the face of Amenhotep I picture an oval face with a narrow chin, itsy-bitsy narrow nostril flattened by the bandages, mildly protruding upper teeth, sunken eyes, collapsed cheeks, pierced lobule of the left ear, and few coiled hair locks.

Preservation Feature

The mummy of Amenhotep I is in a general ideally good preservation situation. Various postmortem injuries are identified including:

Neck fractures and decapitation: A total transverse break of the cervical spine at C4-5 led to decapitation. A total break on the C7-T1 stage is illustrious with dislocation and rotation of the three decrease cervical vertebrae (C5, C6, and C7). Resin is illustrious within the ruin between the seventh cervical vertebra (C7) and the main thoracic vertebra (T1) (Resolve 4).


www.frontiersin.org

Resolve 4. Mid-sagittal CT image of the head and neck of the mummy of Amenhotep I exhibits an intact cribriform plate and the preserved desiccated mind rests slack the cranium. Fractured cervical spine with malrotation of the decrease three cervical vertebrae. A linen band of linen treated with resin wrapped the fractured cervical spine and mounted the amassed head with the dorsal spine.

The lawful hand is dislocated on the wrist; no bones are missing. The lawful hand is displaced anterior to the transversely oriented forearm. The left upper limb is dislocated from the shoulder and elbow and lies beside the physique with the hand broken off. Totally three flexed fingers are on hand within the left hand and the carpal bones are missing.

A expansive defect of the anterior wall of the abdomen and pelvis measures 120 Γ— 180 mm in transverse and craniocaudal dimensions, respectively. The missing two fingers from the left hand are considered at some stage within the belly defect (Figures 5, 6). The fractured medial decrease fragment of the left pubic bone; the break edge is bright without a proof of bone healing.


www.frontiersin.org

Resolve 5. Three-d frontal CT image of the decrease torso and upper limbs of the mummy of Amenhotep I. The lawful forearm is flexed on the elbow and crosses the decrease abdomen transversely; the lawful hand is dislocated on the wrist and is displaced anterior to the forearm. The dislocated left arm and forearm are placed extended along the left facet of the physique. The broken left (hand) has three flexed fingers; the missing two fingers are considered internal an anterior belly wall defect (long arrow). The fractures possess been most likely inflicted by tomb robbers. The initial position of the arms became as soon as potentially crossed in entrance of the physique. A snappy pin is placed transversely across the bandages (quick arrow) inclined to repair the left disarticulated arm in roar.


www.frontiersin.org

Resolve 6. Sagittal CT image of the abdomen and pelvis of the mummy of Amenhotep I showing a expansive anterior wall defect. A linen band treated with resin (long white arrow) partly covers the faulty anterior belly wall. An amulet is considered under the linen band (quick sad arrow). Two fingers missing from the left hand are placed at some stage within the physique cavity under the linen quilt (long sad arrow). The lawful forearm is personally wrapped (white curved arrow). The thickness of the wrapping is extra within the entrance (quick white arrow) than within the back of the physique.

Disarticulated bones of the lawful foot (Resolve 7).


www.frontiersin.org

Resolve 7. Sagittal thick slab 3-dimensional CT image of the lawful foot of the mummy of Amenhotep I. The disarticulated bones of the lawful foot are placed on a wood board. Expose that the metal nails in entrance (quick arrow) and on the back (long arrow) of the board possess been most likely placed to repair the position of the wood plaque to the encompassing wrappings.

Age at Loss of life

The age at death of Amenhotep I is estimated at 35 years essentially based entirely on the closure of epiphyses of the total long bones, moreover to on the morphology of the outside of the symphysis pubis (stage 4 an analogous to 35.2 Β± 9.4 years (Resolve 8) (13). The mouth suggestions a total situation of teeth including all the third molars (Resolve 9). Soft attrition of the maxillary and mandibular teeth (13–15).


www.frontiersin.org

Resolve 8. Three-d CT image of the outside of the symphysis pubis of Amenhotep I the morphology signifies stage 4 an analogous to 35.2 Β± 9.4 years pale.


www.frontiersin.org

Resolve 9. Three-d CT image of the teeth of Amenhotep I in frontal test exhibits a full situation of healthy teeth.

Stature

The vertex to heel length of the skeleton of Amenhotep I measures 161.5 cm within the sagittal reconstructed CT image. We measured the maximum length of the tibia (389 mm) and calculated the stature using the Raxter et al. regression equation for broken-down male Egyptians: (Stature = 2.554 Γ— 38.9 + 69.12 = 168.47 cm Β± 3.002) (16).

Pathological Changes and Trigger of Loss of life

The total objects of teeth are on hand; there’s minimal attrition without proof of caries or unprecedented periodontal illness. No CT proof of bone ailments or joint degeneration. The penis exhibits proof of circumcision. No cause of death will most likely be detected within the CT photos of the physique.

Mummification

– Excerebration: The cranium faulty is undamaged without proof of an strive to lift away the mind (Resolve 3). The shrunken mind occupies the posterior facet of the cranium cavity without proof of any embalming offers (Resolve 4).

– Evisceration: There isn’t very any longer always a proof of viscera at some stage within the physique cavity. A vertical left flank opening measuring (90 mm Γ— 58 mm Γ— 51 mm in length, transverse, and craniocaudal dimensions, respectively) became as soon as most likely the incision inclined for evisceration. The chest and abdominopelvic cavities are stuffed with loose linen (about βˆ’100 HU) and packs with variable CT densities in step with linen treated with resin (70–120 HU). The heart is considered within the left hemithorax.

– Packing: There isn’t very any longer always a proof of orbital packing. Traces of resin are illustrious on the desiccated scrutinize globes. A itsy-bitsy stopper of linen treated with resin is inserted in every nostril, which measures 16 mm Γ— 5 mm within the lawful nostril, and 7 mm Γ— 4 mm within the left. The desiccated tongue is considered slack the mouth; no resin or packs are considered at some stage within the mouth (Resolve 4). No subcutaneous packing is illustrious within the face or elsewhere within the physique.

– Wrapping: There could be CT proof of the actual person wrapping of the lawful upper limb and the left decrease limb; the fingers and toes are wrapped with the remainder of the lawful hand and left foot, and now no longer being personally bandaged. The disarticulated left upper limb has now no longer been personally wrapped but bandaged along with the physique and with the lawful upper limb. The lawful thigh and leg are personally wrapped. The disarticulated lawful foot has now no longer been personally wrapped; it became as soon as bandaged to an underlying wood board and with the left foot. The circumcised penis has been independently wrapped. The physique of the mummy is roofed by transverse wrapping in a spiral style. The thickness of the mummy wrapping is (78–112 mm) within the entrance and (21–40 mm) slack the physique.

– Fingers position: The lawful forearm of Amenhotep I crosses the physique with a lawful attitude on the elbow. The disarticulated lawful hand is placed in entrance of the transversely oriented lawful forearm. The left upper limb is placed along the physique facet. The 2 missing fingers from the left hand are considered at some stage within the belly cavity.

Amulets and Jewelry

A total series of 30 amulets/jewellery objects are stumbled on within the wrapped mummy of Amenhotep I. The itsy-bitsy print of the amulets and jewellery are listed in Desk 1.


www.frontiersin.org

Desk 1. Computed tomography (CT) findings of Amulets and jewellery linked to the mummy of Amenhotep I.

Reburial Embalming Remedy

The mummy exhibits indicators of repair:

– Fixing the amassed head and fractured neck vertebrae: A linen band treated with resin wrapped the fractured cervical spine and saved the head and neck in step with the physique (Resolve 4).

– Covering a defect within the anterior belly wall:

A linen band treated with resin partly covers a faulty anterior belly wall. Two amulets are considered placed under the linen band.

– Placement of the amassed left upper limb alongside the physique:

The left dislocated upper limb is placed alongside the left facet of the physique and has been wrapped with the physique and the lawful arm.

– Resting the disarticulated lawful foot on a wood board:

The disarticulated bones of the lawful foot possess been placed on a wood board measuring 177 mm Γ— 55mm Γ— 7 mm in maximum length, breadth, and thickness respectively. The lawful foot and the wood board are wrapped together by linen layers. Six metal nails (9–10 mm long) are considered inserted within the wood board (four nailed within the entrance, and two within the back) inclined to repair the position of the wood plaque to the encompassing wrappings.

– The command of pins via the bandages along the disarticulated left arm:

Six pins (about 25–27 mm long and a pair of mm in thickness) are placed transversely across the linen bandages on the left facet of the physique opposite the left decrease forearm, inclined to repair it in roar. The CT densities of the pins differ between βˆ’300 and 1,800 HU: four of those pins are on the decrease stop of the differ (will most likely be product of wood), and two pins on the greater stop of the differ will most likely be product of ivory/bone.

– Placement of amulets and jewellery:

The beaded girdle slack the pelvic establish and the expansive amulet on the left hip establish is placed on the outside of the mummy under the wrapping (Resolve 10). Two amulets are placed under the linen band that covers the faulty anterior belly wall.


www.frontiersin.org

Resolve 10. Three-d CT image of the outside of the decrease back of mummy Amenhotep I exhibits a beaded steel girdle (most likely gold) slack the pelvic establish and a faience amulet within the form of a snail shell (arrow) on the left hip establish.

Head Cowl

A fragment of cartonnage covers the head and neck of the wrapped mummy circumferentially and extends in a tripartite wig configuration except the mid-chest stage within the back and entrance. The maximum dimensions of the cartonnage: in length is 444 mm in entrance and 399 on the back; in width is 320 mm; 225 mm intensive. The thickness of the cartonnage measures 5.5–6.5 mm; it exhibits a central low-density layer of linen/papyrus (βˆ’30 HU) lined by a skinny layer of the next density fabric (gesso plaster) from the skin and another layer of gesso from internal (700–1,000 HU).

The face of the cowl is shaped of a separate fragment of wood mounted on the molded entrance of the cartonnage. The wood fragment measures 1,200 HU in CT density and measures: 250 mm in length, 184 mm in width, and 12 mm in thickness. The eyes of the cowl are inlaid stones (Resolve 11). The sad pupil of every scrutinize is product of a discoid construction with a homogeneous CT density (1,693–1,700 HU) an analogous to obsidian crystals. The sad pupil measures (10.7 Γ— 15.2 Γ— 7.3 mm) and (10 Γ— 16 Γ— 7.2 mm) in width, length, and depth for the lawful and left scrutinize pupils, respectively. The white of every scrutinize is shaped by two separate triangular objects of a denser fabric (2,400 HU) placed on all facets of the sad pupil measuring about 10–11 mm Γ— 8.8–9.9 mm Γ— 5.8–6 mm in length, width, and depth, respectively. On the forehead, there’s a one after the other carved construction within the form of a cobra; it measures 84 Γ— 32 Γ— 16 mm in length, width, and depth, respectively. The central fabric of the cobra measures βˆ’30 HU and is inlaid with stones of two,200 HU. The cobra is inserted via a hole (7 mm in diameter) within the cartonnage with a stick (19 Γ— 8 Γ— 4 mm in length, width, and depth, respectively). The left facet of the face cowl exhibits a 120 mm long fissure break that begins lawful under the left scrutinize and extends downward except the upper neck.


www.frontiersin.org

Resolve 11. Axial CT image of the face cowl on the stage of the eyes. The face cowl is mounted on the cartonnage (long arrow); the cartonnage is shaped of a central low-density layer of linen/papyrus lined by denser layers of gesso (long arrow). Every scrutinize of the cowl is product of inlaid stones of a central discoid construction that corresponds to the sad obsidian pupil and denser objects on all facets for the white of the scrutinize most likely constituted of quartz.

Dialogue

Unwrapping and dissection of mummies possess been veritably implemented within the past (3). These procedures are being condemned as they injure the broken-down bodies and possess been modified by non-invasive imaging programs corresponding to CT (12). On this ogle, we inclined CT to digitally unwrap the mummy of King Amenhotep I.

The Thebes royal tombs possess been subjected to a series of tomb robberies (3). After being broken by grave robbers, the mummy of Amenhotep I has been rewrapped twice in broken-down times by the 21st Dynasty Priests (5, 6). The CT photos picture the extent of injure of the mummy of Amenhotep I that alive to neck fractures and decapitation, a expansive defect within the anterior belly wall, and disarticulation of the extremities (left upper limb, lawful hand, and lawful foot). As well to the injuries witnessed on the royal mummies, the plundering of the Theban necropolis became as soon as also documented in juridical documents identified as β€œtomb theft papyri”. The bulk of those documents possess been stumbled on within the temple of Medinet Habu and are concerned regarding the theft of the Thebes temples and tombs within the reign of Ramesses IX and Ramesses XI. The final files obtained from these archaeological documents is that the theft became as soon as veritably implemented by members of the burial neighborhood. The confession of thieves within the tomb theft papyri implies that they possess been after the jewels and amulets in between the wrappings and at some stage within the bodies of the mummies (2). This explains that the postmortem injuries within the mummy of Amenhotep I centered the neck and limbs, long-established places for jewellery, and hacked the abdomen wall within the hunt for amulets at some stage within the physique cavity.

The tip of the mummy of Amenhotep I measures 161.5 cm within the reconstructed CT photos. On the other hand, the presence of multiple physique fractures can possess an affect on the accuracy of the narrate dimension of the top in CT photos. We thus estimated the stature of Amenhotep I by measuring the length of a long bone (tibia). By using a regression equation for the stature of broken-down male Egyptians (16), the top of Amenhotep I is 168.5 cm Β± 3 cm. The CT ogle of the mummy of King Amenhotep I exhibits no pathological adjustments or a detectable cause of his death.

The unsightly X-rays carried out in 1967 by the Michigan College expedition estimated the age of Amenhotep I at death to be 20–25 years essentially based entirely mainly on the coolest teeth situation (11). This CT ogle permits a extra excellent estimation of the age of death of the King essentially based entirely on a extra legit criterion: the 3D-morphology of the outside of the symphysis pubis (15). The pubic symphyseal surface becomes smoother with age, enabling the estimation of age (13). On this ogle, we estimated that the King potentially died on the age of 35, a pair of decade older than X-ray estimation, which is extra essentially based entirely on the historical files that Amenhotep I reigned for 21 years (1, 2).

Mummification became as soon as practiced in broken-down Egypt over a period of 30 centuries, aiming at keeping the dumb physique from decay for the resurrection essentially based entirely on their perception. The funerary rituals and mummification showed some variability within the assorted intervals of the broken-down Egyptian civilization (6). The royal mummies of broken-down Egypt are a truly significant resource for our belief of the mummification programs (3). CT imaging could well well aid pick the mummification vogue via visualization of the bony and soft tissue aspects moreover to other foreign offers and packs (12).

The broken-down Egyptians veritably eliminated the mind (excerebration) by introducing a instrument into the nostril to interrupt the primitive fragment of the anterior cranium faulty. The mind became as soon as eliminated and as soon as in a while embalming offers possess been equipped at some stage within the cranium. Makes an strive of excerebration possess been as early because the Fourth Dynasty (18). The CT photos of the mummy of Amenhotep I picture that there became as soon as no strive to lift away the mind which is considered shrank and occupying the back of the cranium. Other royal mummies dated round the time of Amenhotep I (late 17th Dynasty to early 18th Dynasty) possess now no longer been excerebrated (12). These consist of Seqenenre Taa II, Meritamun, Thutmose II, Thutmose III, and Hatshepsut (19–21). Excerebration turned into trendy later within the 18th Dynasty and the peak of the procedure is instructed to be within the Ptolemaic Period (18).

To stop physique putrefaction, the broken-down Egyptian embalmers eliminated the internal organs via an belly incision (6). The CT scan of the mummy of Amenhotep I printed a vertical left flank incision. Earlier than the 18th Dynasty, incisions possess been vertical within the left flank and extended from the anterior edifying iliac spine upwards. An example of a vertical left flank incision has been reported within the CT of the mummy of Seqenenre Taa II (17th Dynasty) (12, 20). Later within the 18th Dynasty, many of the royal mummies possess indirect incisions parallel to the left inguinal ligament as in Thutmose III (18th Dynasty), Ramesses II (19th Dynasty), and Ramesses III (20th Dynasty) (12). During the route of of evisceration, the center became as soon as preserved (6). The CT photos identified the presence of the center at some stage within the chest of Amenhotep I. Equally, old CT analysis identified the preserved heart in other Original Kingdom royal mummies as in Thutmose II, Ramesses II, Ramesses III (12). The broken-down Egyptian embalmers inclined diverse offers to contain the emptied physique cavity (6, 12). The CT photos picture that the physique cavity of Amenhotep I, an analogous to other royal mummies of the Original Kingdom, is filled with offers with diverse CT densities representing linen fibers, and linen packs treated with resin (12). To make the corpse look reasonable, the embalmers of the royal mummies dated to the Original Kingdom veritably inclined packs within the eyes, nostril, mouth, and under the pores and skin (22). On the other hand, this ogle exhibits that the mummy of Amenhotep I has now no longer got such therapy.

Bandaging and wrapping the mummified physique with linen sheets became as soon as a truly significant stage of the embalming route of in broken-down Egypt (2). The bandaging programs of the mummy modified at some stage within the assorted intervals of broken-down Egyptian Civilization. In the Heart Kingdom, a expansive sheet of linen became as soon as inclined to wrap the mummy. In the Original Kingdom, the wrapping turned into extra elaborate because the embalmers inclined overlapping spiral bands to wrap every limb personally. As soon as the total physique aspects possess been wrapped, the embalmers started wrapping the physique as a total. As every fragment of the mummy became as soon as bandaged, the embalmers uttered spells and placed keeping amulets on the physique and the assorted linen layers. In later intervals, wrapping grew extra sophisticated because the bodies possess been wrapped with narrow bandages, forming advanced patterns (8). The bandages carried the name or titles of the deceased (2). Limited files is identified regarding the vogue of wrapping of the Original Kingdom royal mummies since most of them possess been stumbled on in cached burials in Deir el Bahari and Amenhotep II tomb within the Valley of the Kings after being rewrapped within the 21st Dynasty. The easiest non-cached burial royal mummy identified is Tutankhamun; sadly, the wrappings had turn out to be carbonized, and runt is identified about its sample (8). The CT photos picture that the mummy of Amenhotep I has been fully wrapped. We point out that some bandages will most likely be customary, dated to the 18th Dynasty moreover to the reburial work within the 21st Dynasty. The CT photos picture that the lawful upper limb and the left decrease limb are personally wrapped and possess amulets on the outside of the limb or in between the layers of the bandages. Whereas the amassed left upper limb and the disarticulated lawful foot don’t possess any particular person bandages or linked amulets and possess been wrapped with the physique and/or the contralateral limb. We take hang of that the actual person wrapping of those limbs became as soon as customary, dated to the 18th Dynasty, and became as soon as a runt jumpy by the tomb robbers. Whereas the disarticulated left upper limb and lawful foot possess misplaced their customary particular person bandages and amulets and weren’t personally wrapped but handiest equipped general bandaging with the remainder of the physique by the 21st Dynasty clergymen. The circumcised penis has particular person wrapping.

The lawful forearm of Amenhotep I crosses the physique with a lawful attitude on the elbow. The preservation of the actual person wrapping and amulets of the lawful upper limb could well well strengthen the speculation that the forearm became as soon as crossed on the time of the initial mummification within the 18th Dynasty. The disarticulated left arm and forearm possess been most likely placed alongside the physique at some stage within the reburial within the 21st Dynasty. The crossing forearms on the physique are veritably considered within the Original Kingdom royal mummies. The mummy of King Ahmose, who preceded Amenhotep I, has both arms along the physique (6). This makes the mummy of Amenhotep I inclined to be the main to appear with crossed forearms within the Original Kingdom followed by other Kings corresponding to Thutmose II, Thutmose III, and Tutankhamun (12).

The embalmers inclined funerary objects to offer protection to the deceased. Particular amulets and their placement possess been described within the broken-down Egyptian documents, The Ebook of the Useless (8). The CT examination of the mummy permits the non-invasive ogle and possibility of the presence of amulets and jewellery (12). The multiplanar and 3D reconstruction of the CT photos of the wrapped mummy of Amenhotep I picture the explicit location, dimension, and identification of 30 amulets and jewellery: seven amulets within the bandages of the lawful upper limb, 10 amulets at some stage within the bandages of the left decrease limb, and 13 amulets/jewellery linked to the torso. Ten out of the 13 amulets/jewellery linked to the torso possess been on the physique surface or between the wrappings; handiest three amulets possess been at some stage within the physique cavity: heart amulet at some stage within the chest cavity and two amulets within the abdomen. An amulet is inclined to be many issues; the vitality of an amulet became as soon as in its form, fabric, and coloration. The vogue of fabric inclined to make the amulet relied on the wealth of the deceased (8). The CT densities of the amulets/jewellery enabled the identification of its fabric composition (17). The CT densities of the amulets of Amenhotep I point out that they’re constituted of diverse offers: 11 metal amulets and jewellery (most likely golden), 13 quartz/faience amulets, five fired clay amulets, and one stone amulet. Funerary amulets possess diverse shapes. The CT photos of the mummy of Amenhotep identified a differ of amulets including Wadjet (Respect of Horus), scarab, double-plume, Wadji (papyrus scroll), beads, snail-shell, serpent-head, ib (heart scarab), and other amulets of non-specified identity. The maximum length of the amulets stumbled on in mummy Amenhotep I diverse between 45 and 5 mm.

Inclined Egyptian mummies from the Predynastic Period onward possess been equipped with jewellery constructed of diverse offers starting from shells and beads to gold and gem stones (8). A few of the significant most straightforward-identified and most elaborate objects of bijou possess been stumbled on on the intact royal mummy of Tutankhamun (3). On the other hand, fewer jewellery objects possess been stumbled on within the royal mummies of the Original Kingdom stumbled on in cached burials. Previous CT analysis of the royal mummies of the Original Kingdom stumbled on within the two royal caches identified Thutmose III (BC) to be sporting two golden bracelets hidden within the back of the wrappings (17). On this ogle, the CT photos picture a belt shaped of 34 gold beads placed without lengthen on the decrease back of the mummy of Amenhotep I.

The wrapped mummy of Amenhotep I gives a selected opportunity to designate the intervention carried out at some stage in its reburial by the 21st Dynasty clergymen. The hieratic dockets written in ink on the coffin gave files on the historical route of of the reburial of the mummy Amenhotep I (2). The CT examination suggests how the Theban clergymen of the 21st Dynasty repaired the injuries of the mummy of Amenhotep I inflicted by the tomb robbers and restored the royal dumb. The reburial therapy included: fixing the amassed head and fractured neck vertebrae with a resin-treated linen pad; overlaying the faulty anterior belly wall with a linen band treated with resin; placement of the amassed left upper limb extended alongside the physique and putting the two amassed fingers of the left hand at some stage within the abdomen; resting the disarticulated lawful foot on a wood board with steel nails; wrapping the physique; using pins (most likely product of ivory or bones) to repair the bandages on the disarticulated left upper limb and lawful foot. Metal nails and wood pins possess been inclined within the originate of funerary furniture and coffins in broken-down Egypt (23). Even despite the indisputable truth that nails possess been identified since the Former Kingdom, they weren’t inclined in woodwork except the 18th Dynasty. During the Former Kingdom, the best metal on hand became as soon as copper. From the Heart Kingdom (c. 2160 BC to 1788 BC), bronze and copper possess been fresh. On the other hand, iron has now no longer been inclined in funerary gear except 700 BC (24).

During the reburial of the mummy of Amenhotep I, we recommend that the 21st Dynasty embalmers placed two amulets under the linen band they inclined to quilt the anterior belly wall defect. We point out that at some stage in reburial the embalmers placed or maintained in roar a golden beaded girdle slack the pelvis.

The mummy of Amenhotep I wears a cowl. Mummy masks possess been fragment of an elaborate burial ritual in broken-down Egypt. They are veritably product of cartonnage. Cartonnage is a cardboard-like fabric that became as soon as inclined to make coffins for mummies. The cartonnage substance is product of glued linen or papyrus, covered with plaster and water, then molded to the desired form. The dry cartonnage will most likely be then colored or gilded. Cartonnage will most likely be made as one fragment that covers the total mummy, or in smaller objects to quilt obvious regions such because the head, pectoral, or legs. Cartonnage became as soon as inclined within the assorted intervals of Egyptian broken-down civilization dating back to the tip of the Former Kingdom (2686–2181 BC). Cartonnage turned into trendy within the Third Intermediate Period (1069–664 BC), moreover to later within the Ptolemaic-Early Roman Sessions (330 BCβˆ’250 AD) (6). A CT scan can ogle a mummy cartonnage (25). On this ogle, the CT photos picture the form and full dimensions of the cowl of Amenhotep I which is partly hidden by the overlying garlands. The layers of the cartonnage possess diverse CT densities essentially based entirely on their fabric; the linen/papyrus layer has a decrease CT density than that of the plaster (gesso) layers on both the internal and outer surfaces. The CT photos could well well aid to designate how the aspects of the head cowl possess been assembled. The CT scan exhibits the face of the cowl as a separate fragment of wood mounted on the entrance of the cartonnage. The face of the cowl has been individualized to the facial parts an analogous to that on the coffin of Amenhotep I (1). The facial parts of the cowl of Amenhotep I indubitably possess given a existence-like appearance by utilizing eyes inlaid with stones. The sad scrutinize pupil is discoid in form product of Obsidian, a naturally occurring glass; while the scrutinize white is shaped with two separate objects constituted of a denser fabric (most likely quartz) and are placed on all facets of every pupil. Various manufacturing programs and offers possess been identified within the inlaid eyes in broken-down Egyptian collections including obsidian, rock crystal, quartz, and ivory (6, 26). The producer of the inlaid scrutinize within the cowl of Amenhotep I inclined three separate objects of stones which most likely required extra work than other programs the establish the white scrutinize became as soon as product of one fragment with a tapering hole within the center to receive a disc representing the pupil (26). The CT photos title the coolest establish of preservation of the cartonnage without a cracks or crooked areas. On the other hand, the wood facial cowl exhibits a long thin fissure break; a fragment of files that would help in its restoration.

The embalmers lined the mummy with garlands of red, yellow, and blue vegetation identified as Delphinium orientale, Sesbania egyptiaca, Acacia nilotica, and Carmanthus tinctorius (8). It became as soon as the gorgeous reburial job equipped by the 21st Dynasty clergymen for the mummy of Amenhotep I that made Maspero make a possibility now no longer to unwrap the mummy or disturb its novelty (8). The reburial finishing up of the Original Kingdom Royal mummies by the 21st Dynasty clergymen became as soon as accused to be for the scheme of the elimination and reuse of the royal burial gear for the Third Intermediate Period Kings. Examples consist of the reemployment of two coffins first and important made for Thutmose I (18th Dynasty) for King Pinudjem I (21st Dynasty) (2). On the other hand, this CT examination of the mummy of Amenhotep I finds how the Theban clergymen of the 21st Dynasty had lovingly restored the royal mummified physique of Amenhotep I and preserved or equipped rich amulets and jewellery. This ogle could well well make us possess re-self belief within the goodwill of the reburial finishing up of the Royal mummies by the 21st Dynasty clergymen.

On this ogle we inclined CT to scan the mummy of King Amenhotep I. CT is even handed the diagnostic gold long-established imaging modality for studying mummies. Magnetic resonance imaging has a restricted price within the examination of dry mummified stays as this modality essentially gives files on the situation of mobile hydrogen at some stage within the physique. Future analysis of the mummy of Amenhotep I could well well consist of dual-vitality CT scanning. Various offers possess diverse linear attenuation coefficients at diverse vitality ranges. Twin-vitality CT scanning uses two diverse vitality ranges that would aid to title and voice the embalming offers within the mummy. Twin-vitality scanning could well well also aid to slice metal artifacts in CT photos attributable to golden amulets and jewellery placed on the mummy (27).

The indubitably ideally good CT imaging technique on this ogle can possess applications in paleo-anthropological and bio-archaeological analysis of mummies from Egypt moreover to other cultures corresponding to Peru (28). CT is being inclined on the moment extra continuously in forensic remedy. Postmortem CT imaging can provide precious files in identifications in mass disasters, trauma, and homicidal instances (27). The methodological instrument on this ogle can possess doubtless applications in studying cadavers that possess been preserved by natural mummification attributable to indecent environmental instances corresponding to dry hot deserts or freezing mountains (27, 28).

Conclusion

The digital unwrapping of the mummy of Amenhotep I using CT objects a selected opportunity to picture non-invasively the physical parts of the King, designate the mummification vogue early within the 18th Dynasty, and acknowledge the reburial intervention carried out within the 21st Dynasty.

Files Availability Observation

The datasets presented on this article are now no longer readily on hand since the solutions amassed at some stage within the fresh ogle are on hand from the authors on reasonable quiz and with permission of the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities and Tourism. Requests to entry the datasets could well well silent be directed to saharsaleem1@gmail.com.

Creator Contributions

SS became as soon as to blame for the conception and beauty, acquisition of files, analysis and interpretation of files, moreover to drafting of the manuscript, and generation of the figures and to blame for the accuracy and integrity of the work. ZH made tall contributions to the kind, interpretation of the results, and revision of the intellectual explain material and agreed to be to blame for the integrity of any fragment of the work. All authors read and authorized the manuscript.

Conflict of Pastime

The authors divulge that the analysis became as soon as conducted within the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that will most likely be construed as a doubtless conflict of hobby.

Publisher’s Expose

All claims expressed on this article are thoroughly those of the authors and make now no longer basically voice those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the creator, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that would be evaluated on this article, or divulge that would be made by its producer, is now no longer guaranteed or endorsed by the creator.

Abbreviations

BC, Earlier than Christ; cm, centimeter; C, cervical vertebra; CT, Computed Tomography; D, Dorsal vertebra; FOV, Field-Of-Look; HU, Hounsfield Unit; kVp, Kilovolt height; mAS, milliampere-seconds.

References

1. Partridge RB. Faces of Pharaohs Royal Mummies and Coffins from Inclined Thebes. London: The Rubicon Press (1997).

Google Pupil

2. Reeves N, Wilkinson RH. The Total Valley of the Kings. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd (1996).

Google Pupil

3. Brier B. Egyptian Mummies. Original York: William Morrow and Firm (1994).

Google Pupil

5. Maspero G. Les momies royale de Deir el-Bahari. Paris: Ernest Leroux (1889).

6. Ikram S, Dodson A. Royal Mummies within the Egyptian Museum. Cairo: American College in Cairo Press (1997).

Google Pupil

7. Kitchen K. The Third intermediate Period in Egypt: (1100-650 BC). second revised edition. Warminster: Aris & Philips (1986).

Google Pupil

8. Smith G. The Royal Mummies: Cairo: Catalogue general des Antiquites Epyptiennes du Musee du Caire. Nos 61051-61100. The Royal Mummies. Cairo:L’Institut d’Archeologie Orientale (1912).

9. Derry DE. An X-ray examination of the mummy of King Amenophis I. Annales du Carrier des Antiquite’s d’Egypte (ASAE). (1933/4) 34: 47–48.

10. Harris JE, Weeks K. X-raying the Pharaohs. Original York: Charles Scribner’s Sons (1973). ISBN 684-13016-5

Google Pupil

11. Harris JE, Wente EF. An X-ray Atlas of the Royal Mummies. Chicago: College of Chicago Press (1980).

Google Pupil

12. Hawass Z, Saleem SN. Scanning the Pharaohs: CT Imaging of the Original Kingdom Royal Mummies. AUC Press, Original York (2016).

Google Pupil

13. Telmon N, Gaston A, Chemla P, Blanc A, Joffre F, RougΓ© D. Utility of the Suchey-Brooks skill to 3-dimensional imaging of the pubic symphysis. J Forensic Sci. (2005) 50: 507–12. doi: 10.1520/JFS2004326

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Textual explain material | Google Pupil

14. Lovejoy CO. Dental wear within the Libben inhabitants: its purposeful sample and role within the chance of grownup skeletal age at death. Am J Phys Anthropol. (1985) 68: 47–56. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.1330680105

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Textual explain material | Google Pupil

15. Pasquier E, De Saint Martin Pernot L, Burdin V, Mounayer C, Le Leisure C, Colin D. Likelihood of age at death: assessment of an algorithm of age prediction using numerical 3-dimensional CT files from pubic bones. Am J Phys Anthropol. (1999) 108: 261–8. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199903)108:3<261::AID-AJPA2>3.0.CO;2-B

PubMed Abstract | Google Pupil

16. Raxter MH, Ruff CB, Azab A, Erfan M, Soliman M, El-Sawaf A. Stature estimation in Inclined Egyptians: a fresh technique essentially based entirely on anatomical reconstruction of stature. Am J Phys Anthropol. (2008) 136: 147–55. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.20790

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Textual explain material | Google Pupil

17. Saleem SN, Hawass Z. Multidetector computed tomographic ogle of amulets, jewellery, and other foreign objects in royal Egyptian mummies dated from the 18th to 20th dynasties. J Comput Attend Tomogr. (2014) 38: 153–8. doi: 10.1097/RCT.0b013e3182ab2221

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Textual explain material | Google Pupil

19. Saleem SN, Hawass Z. Variability in mind therapy at some stage in mummification of royal Egyptians dated to the 18thβˆ’20th dynasties: MDCT findings correlated with the archaeologic literature. AJR Am J Roentgenol. (2013) 200:W336–44. doi: 10.2214/AJR.12.9405

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Textual explain material | Google Pupil

20. Saleem SN, Hawass Z. Computed tomography ogle of the mummy of king seqenenre Taa II: fresh insights into his violent death. Entrance Med. (2021) 8: 637527. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2021.637527

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Textual explain material | Google Pupil

21. Hawass Z, Saleem SN. Computed tomography examination of the screaming mummy β€œUnknown-Lady-A”. Egypt J Radiol Nucl Med. (2020) 51: 139 doi: 10.1186/s43055-020-00255-6

CrossRef Full Textual explain material | Google Pupil

22. Saleem SN, Hawass Z. Subcutaneous packing in royal Egyptian mummies dated from 18th to 20th dynasties. J Comput Attend Tomogr. (2015) 39: 301–6. doi: 10.1097/RCT.0000000000000205

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Textual explain material | Google Pupil

23. Bracci S, Caruso O, Galeotti M, Iannaccone R, Magrini D, Picchi D. Multidisciplinary skill for the ogle of an Egyptian coffin (late 22nd/early 25th dynasty): combining imaging and spectroscopic programs. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. (2015) 145: 511–22. doi: 10.1016/j.saa.2015.02.052

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Textual explain material | Google Pupil

25. Hughes S. Three-d reconstruction of an broken-down Egyptian mummy. In: Imaging the Previous. Digital Imaging and Computer Graphics in museums and archaeology. British Museum Occasional Paper. 114. London: The British Museum (1996). p. 211–25.

PubMed Abstract | Google Pupil

26. Petrie WMF. Hawara, Biahmu, and Arsinoe. London: Field & Tuer, The Leadenhall Press (1889).

Google Pupil

27. Beckett RG, Conlogue GJ. Advances in Paleoimaging. Capabilities for Paleoanthropology, Bioarchaeology, Forensics, and Cultural Artefacts. London: CRC (2020). doi: 10.4324/9781315203089

CrossRef Full Textual explain material | Google Pupil

28. Beckett RG, Conlogue GJ, Nelson A. Case Reviews for Advances in Paleoimaging and Other Non-Clinical Capabilities. Boca Raton: CRC (2021). doi: 10.4324/9780429318597

CrossRef Full Textual explain material | Google Pupil

Join the pack! Join 8000+ others registered customers, and fetch chat, make groups, submit updates and make chums round the arena!
www.knowasiak.com/register/

Charlie Layers
WRITTEN BY

Charlie Layers

Fill your life with experiences so you always have a great story to tell