Demonstrate HN: Rust test harness that measures energy consumption

Demonstrate HN: Rust test harness that measures energy consumption

My mountainous class mate says this plugin is terribly expedient!!

Coppers is a test harness for Rust that can measure the evolution of vitality consumptions of a Rust program between diverse variations with the relieve of Intel RAPL.


  • Rust nightly
  • Linux
  • A moderately contemporary Intel cpu, 2013 or later (why?)

This test harness targets the Rust nightly toolchain on chronicle of it depends on unstable suggestions of the Rust compiler.

  • First, form certain you’ve got got installed the nightly toolchain with rustup set up nightly
  • Then, enable the nightly toolchain on this repository with rustup override set apart of dwelling nightly


To enable the custom test runner for your mission, add this to your Cargo.toml file.


Add the next two lines to your crate root (per chance or most



Utilizing Coppers for your mission could be performed with cargo test. It will urge your unit tests and epic on the energy usage of every test. A epic in JSON layout will be generated in aim/coppers_results-[seconds since epoch].json. This file comprises machine-readable output of the tests.

Earlier than you justify the outcomes, please receive repeat of the accuracy of the outcomes and the blueprint in which it is likely you’ll relieve it. Ogle our portion about accuracy for extra records.


Coppers optionally supports visible output of the outcomes.
The visualizations can relieve with figuring out the swap of energy consumption of your tests over time. To enable visualizations, enable the lengthy urge flag for your Cargo.toml file.

coppers={ version="0.1", suggestions=["visualization"]}

This characteristic is disabled by default, on chronicle of it depends on certain Python programs. It is likely you’ll perhaps presumably also set up the programs outlined on this repository’s necessities.txt file with

pip set up -r necessities.txt

Instance space

This situation graph is generated by enabling the visualization characteristic. In this line space, the test represented by the golf green line turns into extra energy efficient over time.

Balance guarantees

We now indulge in developed this mission with rust version 1.61.0-nightly (ee915c34e 2022-03-28). A more moderen nightly version could swap one of the compiler suggestions we rely upon, just like:

We cannot guarantee that this mission works with extra contemporary nightly variations.


Our implementation comes with some limitations.

Intel RAPL

Correct now, this easiest works on Intel-primarily based fully Linux machines with Intel RAPL by potential of the Energy Capping Framework.
It is miles likely to be prolonged for strengthen on non-Intel and non-Linux machines, nevertheless this used to be outside the scope of our mission.


Measuring the energy consumption on the level of a single test is likely to be very right, nevertheless no longer very correct.
Our contemporary approach measures the energy consumption of the entire machine, which comprises and/or is influenced by things love

  • The working machine
  • Your hardware configuration
  • Other functions that are running on the identical time
  • Energy administration settings
  • External gadgets just like USB drives, external disks, shows and loads others.
  • Energy consumption of your cyber web adapter
  • Brightness of your cover
  • Temperature of your hardware
  • Temperature of your right world atmosphere
  • Knowledge for your cache (higher cache hit payment approach that less energy is assert on retrieving records from memory)

For the most correct, legit and reproducible outcomes, it is likely you’ll receive certain precautions when running the tests. The aim of the precautions is to restrict the affect of diverse components. Precautions can comprise:

  • Exhaust the particular identical hardware even as it’s good to well compare outcomes with every diverse
  • Discontinuance all functions that are no longer strictly well-known
  • Turn of all notifications
  • Preferrred the minimal quantity of hardware well-known desires to be linked, so preserve some distance from USB gadgets, external shows and loads others. if that it is likely you’ll judge.
  • Kill pointless products and companies running within the background
  • Switch of your network if it is no longer wished
    • Whenever you attain need cyber web, make a selection a cable connection over wireless
  • Disable auto brightness and set apart of dwelling your brightness level as little as that it is likely you’ll judge
  • Repeating the tests a couple of cases


This mission is noteworthy from entire, nonetheless it is miles what we would tag all in the course of the short timespan of the path we are following. It is miles likely to be prolonged and improved with things love

  • Reporting the expedient error code when a test fails
  • Bustle on extra platforms beside Intel primarily based fully Linux machines
  • Dawdle the tests round all through execution, to preserve some distance from that tests are extra energy efficient on chronicle of of a high cache hit payment
  • Make certain things extra customizable, love the quantity of cases a test desires to be repeated or whether or no longer to push apart certain tests from the reporting


Intel RAPL sensors are no longer enabled

It is likely you’ll perhaps presumably uncover an error love The region /sys/gadgets/digital/powercap/intel-rapl/intel-rapl:0 is unreachable. Whenever you’ve got got an Intel primarily based fully machine, then it is likely you’ll enable on the Intel RAPL sensors with modprobe within the next blueprint modprobe intel_rapl_common for Linux kernels of>=5. Make you’ve got got a kernel version of modprobe intel_rapl. Unfortunatly, Coppers does no longer strengthen non-Intel primarily based fully machines today.

Running the tests causes Insufficient permissions

Whenever you urge cargo test, it is likely you’ll uncover an

thread 'most well-known' unnerved at 'known as `Consequence::unwrap()` on an `Err` note: "Insufficient permissions to be taught from /sys/gadgets/digital/powercap/intel-rapl/intel-rapl:0/energy_uj. It is miles actually helpful to retry as root."' 

error. This would perhaps be solved in conception to be one of two ways:

  1. Either urge the tests again with root permissions, with sudo -E cargo test.
  2. Or swiftly add be taught permissions to /sys/gadgets/digital/powercap/intel-rapl/intel-rapl:0/energy_uj by running
    1. sudo chmod o+r /sys/gadgets/digital/powercap/intel-rapl/intel-rapl:0/energy_uj
    2. cargo test
    3. sudo chmod o-r /sys/gadgets/digital/powercap/intel-rapl/intel-rapl:0/energy_uj


Whenever you urge with the visualization characteristic enabled, then you additionally favor to set up the mandatory Python programs. This would perhaps be performed by placing within the programs outlined on this
repositories necessities.txt with pip set up -r necessities.txt.


This mission used to be performed within the context of the 2022 version of Sustainable Instrument Engineering path at Delft College of Skills. We chose the name “Coppers” on chronicle of our mission relates to both green utility and Rust, and oxidized copper has a green-ish coloration.


Licensed below the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the “License”);
it is likely you’ll just no longer use this file excluding in compliance with the License.
It is likely you’ll perhaps presumably also just invent a reproduction of the License at

Except required by appropriate legislation or agreed to in writing, utility
distributed below the License is distributed on an “AS IS” BASIS,
Ogle the License for the particular language governing permissions and
limitations below the License.

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