Corruption in Ukraine

Corruption in Ukraine

Corruption is frequent in Ukrainian society.[1][2] In 2012 Ernst & Young place apart Ukraine among the three most-indecent nations of the sphere—alongside Colombia and Brazil.[3] In 2015 The Guardian called Ukraine “the most indecent nation in Europe”.[4] In accordance with a ballotconducted by Ernst & Young in 2017, consultants understanding to be Ukraine to be the ninth-most indecent nation in the sphere.[5] In accordance with Transparency Worldwide‘s Corruption Perceptions Index (a scale of least to most indecent nations), Ukraine ranked 122nd out of 180 international locations in 2021, the 2nd most indecent in Europe, earlier than Russia.[6]

United States diplomats described Ukraine under Presidents Kuchma (reasonably than industrial from 1994 to 2005) and Yushchenko (reasonably than industrial from 2005 to 2010) as a kleptocracy, in accordance with WikiLeaks cables.[7]

Origins and scale[edit]

Ukrainian professor Oleh Bazaluk [uk] reports that the roots of the Ukrainian corruption stem from the Soviet nature of the Ukrainian political leaders, who oldschool to be integrated into the Communist nomenklatura (ruling elite) earlier than the crumple of the Soviet Union. The politicians created an authoritarian-oligarchic governance regime in Ukraine where the corruption grew to become ubiquitous with no possibilities to put into effect a European series of the Ukrainian people.[8]

Prominent Ukrainian economist Oleh Havrylyshyn [uk] performed a comparison of the Ukrainian corruption in wide world context consistent with records offered by Transparency Worldwide. This study estimated the stage of the corruption in Ukraine as similar to international locations of Sub-Saharan Africa with Uganda as the closest counterpart.[9]

In a August 2020 behold by the Ilko Kucheriv Foundation for Democratic Initiatives [uk] 41.8% of respondents stated that corruption “is a excessive phenomenon that has no arrangement grounds” while 36% expend the risk that corruption is “a factor of social traditions.”[10] Respondents from Southern and Western Ukraine extra usually selected the risk of corruption being “a factor of social traditions” (42.2% and 43.4%). The likelihood “a excessive phenomenon that has no arrangement grounds” was once extra usually chosen by respondents in Central Ukraine (47.5%) and Eastern Ukraine (53.45%).[10]


Bribes are given to be sure public providers are delivered either in time or at all.[11] Ukrainians stated they give bribes due to they center of attention on it’s outmoded and anticipated.[11][12] A pair of of the very most attention-grabbing bribes hang greater than US$1 million. [13] In accordance with a 2008 Administration Systems Worldwide (MSI) sociological behold, the most realistic corruption stages were discovered in vehicle inspection (57.5%), the police (54.2%), successfully being care (54%), the courts (49%) and greater training (43.6%).[14] On 8 June 2011, Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych stated that corruption charges the reveal budget US$2.5 billion in revenues yearly and that by plot of indecent dealings in public procurement 10% to 15% (US$7.4 billion) of the reveal budget “leads to the pockets of officials”.[15]

In accordance with the United States Company for Worldwide Construction (USAID), the critical causes of corruption in Ukraine are a outdated justice plot and an over-controlling non-transparent authorities blended with industrial-political ties and a outdated civil society.[16] Corruption is frequently talked about in the Ukrainian media.[17][18]

In Might maybe maybe 2016, the IMF mission chief for Ukraine stated that the good deal of corruption was once a key take a look at for persisted international serve.[19] Some western analysts believe that sizable international loans are not encouraging reform, but enabling the indecent extraction of funds out of the nation.[20] U.S. Assistant Secretary of Snarl Victoria Nuland urged Ukraine to commence prosecuting indecent officials: “It’s time to commence locking up individuals who own ripped off the Ukrainian inhabitants for too prolonged and it’s time to eradicate the most cancers of corruption”.[21]

Particular person involvement in corruption[edit]

The very most attention-grabbing recipients of bribery are the police, the successfully being carrier and the training plot.[22] Within the leisurely 2000s and early 2010s, round 67% of Ukrainians who had dealt with authorities talked about that they’d been straight away inflamed by indecent transactions.[11][23] In a behold in 2010, 30–49.9% of respondents admitted paying a bribe to a carrier provider all over the previous 300 and sixty five days;[24] in an identical behold in 2007, 18–32% of respondents admitted paying a bribe.[24] A comparable figure for the UK for 2011 was once 1.9%.[25] On the replace hand, in a various behold in leisurely 2008, most effective 21% replied that they or anybody living of their family had paid a bribe in any manufacture in the outdated 12 months; comparable figures for the US and UK were 2% and 3% respectively.[26] In a GfK behold held in the summer time of 2001 43% stated they by no technique for my share had given bribes.[12]

In 2013, 74% would not mumble an incident of corruption; 24% were worried of penalties, 63% believed it could presumably presumably not fabricate any difference.[22]

Political corruption[edit]

Within the years after Ukrainian independence, election fraud was once frequent, mainly by plot of the usage of “administrative sources“.[27] On the diverse hand, in accordance with Taras Kuzio election fraud in Ukraine can most effective attain 5 p.c of the total vote.[28] Following the initial rounds of balloting in the 2004 presidential election, the Supreme Court docket of Ukraine dominated that due to the scale of the electoral fraud, it was once very not vulnerable to place the election results and ordered a revote.[29] Afterwards outright vote rigging diminished,[30] despite the indisputable fact that politicians serene claim(ed) election fraud, and administrative tricks to obtain extra votes for a explain party own not vanished.[31] The Ukrainian electorate stays extremely skeptical in regards to the honesty of the election course of.[32] Any voter who engages in election fraud faces a maximum sentence of two years in jail[citation needed], even supposing activists command no one has been punished for voter fraud since Ukrainian independence.[33]

United States diplomats own claimed the privatization of several Ukrainian reveal enterprises were rigged in favor of political chums.[7] On a regional stage, corruption has been discovered in reference to land allocation.[34]

Ukrainian politicians own frequently accused each and each diverse of corruption while claiming to fight it themselves.[35] After going undercover in the Reforms for the Future parliamentary faction in early 2012, Roman Zabzalyuk claimed this faction “equipped” its members for “US$500,000 (for a ‘defection’ from diverse parliamentary groups), after which they pay a monthly wage of $20,000-25,000″; in distinction, in accordance with Reforms for the Future, Zabzalyuk ḧad pretended he was once “suffering a truly indispensable disease” and the group had managed to raise some $100,000 for Zabzalyuk to endure surgical operation in Israel.[36]

Since July 1, 2011, the President, Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada, High Minister, Prosecutor General, ministers and diverse Ukrainian top officials own been accountable for prosecution for corruption.[37] Kost Bondarenko (chairman of the board of the Institute of Ukrainian Politics), claims that earlier than 2010, there was once an unwritten rule in Ukrainian politics, “No charges were brought against members of the outgoing authorities, and their successors by no technique had to anxiety about what tomorrow would possibly presumably presumably issue”;[38] but in 2010 and 2011, “felony charges were brought against 78 members of the venerable authorities; and greater than 500 felony circumstances own been opened against sitting officials.”.[38] On the replace hand, since 2010 the Ukrainian press brought up thousands of examples of felony circumstances in which reveal officials, moreover politicians and businessmen linked to the ruling Occasion of Regions, were proven leniency unparalleled for the common inhabitants of suspects.[39]

Minister of Interior Affairs Vitaliy Zakharchenko stated in March 2012 that since 2010 about 400 politicians had confronted felony charges in reference to corruption; most of them from the Occasion of Regions, adopted by Bloc Yulia Tymoshenko and Our Ukraine–Americans’s Self-Protection Bloc members.[40] It’s miles unclear how loads of these charges own since been proved by the courts.[citation needed]

Ukrainian media, particularly the Ukrayinska Pravda, frequently unveil a millionaire lifestyle of Ukrainian politicians and public servants,[41] totally at odds with their declared superior incomes.[42]

In accordance with historian Andrew Wilson, as of 2016 development in cutting back corruption was once dejected.[43] A 2015 behold showed that 72% of adults blamed “corruption of energy” for the dearth of development in reform.[43]

An October 2016 requirement for MPs to clarify their wealth resulted in a declared cumulative wealth of about $460 million for the 413 MPs.[44] Reacting to public criticism, MPs cancelled a wage rise that can presumably own doubled their monthly wage.[45] This measure was once share of an Anti-Corruption Equipment passed into legislation in October 2014, which was once a requirement of international monetary serve for Ukraine and a prerequisite to eligibility for visa-free creep within the European Union.[44][46]

Native politics[edit]

Just a few Ukrainian mayors own been suspected of the usage of their posts to serve their possess industrial pursuits.[47]

Serhiy Odarych, venerable mayor of Cherkasy, has been suspected of inflicting a 600,000 hryvnia loss to town budget.[48]

Juridical corruption[edit]

“There would possibly presumably presumably even be circumstances of the revocation of investment, due to correct uncertainty is terribly deep, and the actions of regional authorities are willful.”

German Ambassador to Ukraine Hans-Jurgen Heimsoeth, leisurely September 2011[49]

Ukrainian politicians and analysts own described the plot of justice in Ukraine as “snide to the core”[50][51] and own complained about political stress placed on judges and corruption.[52] Independent attorneys and human rights activists own complained Ukrainian judges frequently attain under stress at hand down a certain verdict.[53] Ukraine’s court plot is extensively understanding to be indecent.[54] A Ukrainian Justice Ministry behold in 2009 revealed that just about all effective 10% of respondents depended on the nation’s court plot. Less than 30% believed that it was once serene imaginable to obtain a dazzling trial.[50]

Regardless that judicial independence exists in precept, in practise there is cramped separation of juridical and political powers. Judges are subjected to stress by political and industrial pursuits.[55]

A 2017 Reuters article quotes then-PM Volodomyr Groysman, asserting that “the weakest hyperlink in our fight against corruption is the Ukrainian court”; giving an instance of 30 judges “with annual salaries ranging from US$10,000-13,000” who possess Porsches.[56] As one other instance, on Might maybe maybe 22, 2012 Volodymyr Rokytskyi, Deputy Head of Ukraine’s Security Carrier, was once photographed in public sporting a US$32,000 luxurious wristwatch — despite the true fact that its label amounts to his yearly superior earnings — at a joint Ukrainian-American tournament dedicated to combating unlawful treatment.[57] Ukrainian judges own been arrested while taking bribes.[58]

Critics own additionally complained that officials and their kids (the latter are identified as “mazhory[59]) obtain marvelous sentences when put next with frequent residents.[60][61]

Kyiv Publish reported in November 2018 that several candidates for a submit in the original Excessive Anti-Corruption Court docket of Ukraine where themselves suspected/associated to corruption.[62]

Corruption in the overall public sector[edit]

In 2015 corruption allegations were made against Energoatom, Ukraine’s reveal nuclear energy operator.[63] In March 2016, Energoatom’s sources and monetary institution accounts were frozen by Ukrainian courts over allegedly unpaid debts, against which Energoatom is attention-grabbing.[64][65]

As of 2016, loads of Ukraine’s critical provincial highways are in very dejected condition, with an Ukravtodor superior bringing up that 97% of roads are in need of repair. The road repair budget was once position at about 20 billion hryvnias, but corruption causes the budget to be poorly spent.[66]

Corruption in greater training[edit]

Higher training in Ukraine is plagued with bribery.[67][68][69] In 2011 33% of all college students claimed they own got encountered corruption of their college, 29% heard about circumstances of corruption from diverse college students, while 38% had not encountered corruption.[70] In accordance with Transparency Worldwide study carried out in 2008, 47.3% of university college students stated that a bribe had been demanded from them; of these, 29% had paid this bribe freely.[14] College students can “steal” a college entry, examination results, marking doctoral and/or grasp’s theses.[14][69]

Bribes range from US$10 to US$50 for an examination pass to several thousand for entry to a university.[14] In accordance with authorities sources, bribes range from US$80 to US$21,500.[14] Salaries of lecturers and professors are low in Ukraine when put next with diverse professions; this would possibly presumably presumably trigger them to be tempted to impeach bribes.[14][69] In accordance with Ararat Osipian entire corruption hierarchies own formed in Ukraine’s colleges and universities.[71] These hierarchies own developed for the reason that 1990s as the of uncontrolled and rampant corruption.[72] Ararat claims that indecent ruling regimes preserve an eye fixed on indecent universities and force them into compliance,[73] at the side of all over the elections.[74] This was once aided by universities largely live Stalinist form bureaucracies, unable to remodel.[75]

Till 2015 university autonomy was once nonexistent.[76] In 2015 the Ukrainian parliament passed a brand original legislation on greater training to present universities extra autonomy, at the side of preserve an eye fixed on over their possess funds.[69] The target was once to support within most investment, fundraising and the appearance of endowments.[69]

Ukrainian authorities officials own been caught with unsuitable university diplomas.[77]

Corruption and industrial[edit]

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Construction has stated corruption is a “critical obstacle” to doing industrial in Ukraine.[78]

Research conducted by Ernst & Young in 2011 and 2012 showed that the discover of top managers accepting bribes increased by 9 p.c in 2011 and 15 p.c in 2012.[3] One more 4 p.c were ready to pay bribes in bellow to cloak the principle points of their monetary performance.[3]

Baby-kisser Natalia Korolevska has estimated that “Corruption has compelled industrial to switch in the shadow where now we own 45% of our economy”.[79]

The representative of 1 United Kingdom-primarily based mostly firm has claimed non-Ukrainian firms usually lose contracts in the event that they won’t pay bribes or fail to “out-bribe” their competitors.[53] Ukrainians and industrial representatives own claimed “Replace ventures above a certain stage require palm-greasing of some functionary at some stage”.[53]


In 2012 President Viktor Yanukovych reported that just about all effective about 23 p.c of social carrier funds plod to individuals who in fact need it.[3] The Ukrainian media own featured many tales revealing that even parliamentarians illegally obtain social benefits, fraudulently claiming to be warfare and Chernobyl veterans.[3]

Corruption in healthcare[edit]

Although sanatorium treatment in reveal-bustle hospitals is theoretically free for Ukrainians, sufferers’ paying money there to be sure they obtain the treatment required is frequent.[80][81]

In June 2012 advocacy groups accused Smartly being Ministry officials of embezzling money that must be oldschool to address AIDS sufferers by buying AIDS treatment at vastly inflated costs after which receiving kickbacks.[82]

Prices of corruption[edit]

In accordance with Ararat Osipian due to endemic corruption, Ukraine did not cope with its financial increase trends.[83] The corruption, perceived as reckless, that marked President Viktor Yanukovich’s rule contributed to his downfall in 2014 and left the nation’s army sick-outfitted to counter Russia’s invasion of Crimea.[84]

In 2008 Transparency Worldwide estimated that 30 to 50 p.c of all Ukrainians had confronted authorities corruption.[14] Juhani Grossmann (working for an a.o. Administration Systems Worldwide project)[85] claimed in 2009 that “Ukrainians pay roughly 3.5 billion, or greater than US$400 million, in bribes yearly.”[18] The outdated 300 and sixty five days, he claimed that the figure was once US$700 million.[86]

Executive actions[edit]

Corruption has become a straight away threat to the constitutional rights and freedoms of residents.

After his election in leisurely 2004 President Viktor Yushchenko promised a “War on Corruption”.[88] Just a few officials were indeed arrested and/or puzzled early 2005 (among them later ministers in the Azarov Executive Borys Kolesnikov[89][90][91] and Yuri Boyko[92][93]). Broken-down Security Carrier of Ukraine Chairman Oleksandr Turchynov claimed that in the summer time of 2005 Yushchenko kept a long way off from an investigation into allegedly unsuitable practices in the transport of Turkmen pure gas to Ukraine and kept a long way off from the arrest of Boyko for abuse of space of business while heading Naftogaz: [92][93]

In a 20 September 2005 interview with Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, “Turchynov stated that Yushchenko told him in mid-August to close ‘persecuting my men’ and that the investigation of RosUkrEnergo was once ‘creating a warfare with Russian President Vladimir Putin‘”.[93] A behold conducted in November 2008 showed that 73% of people in Ukraine understanding to be the 2nd Tymoshenko Executive‘s actions against corruption to be ineffective; comparable figures for the U.S. and the UK were 73% and 39%.[26] In a behold in 2001, when Kuchma was once President, 80% of Ukrainians “totally/reasonably agreed” with the observation: “The original authorities has no real hobby in punishing corruption”.[12]

Ukraine joined the Group of States In opposition to Corruption in 2006.[94]

Over time, several anti-corruption licensed pointers own been passed by the Ukrainian parliament.[37][95] In September 2011 the Nationwide Anti-Corruption Committee was once launched.[96]

Precise cherish his predecessor Yushchenko,[88] President Viktor Yanukovych (and his Azarov Executive[97]) made the fight against corruption a spearhead in his home insurance policies.[96][98][99] Political opponents of Yanukovych accused him of the usage of his anti-corruption marketing campaign for politically motivated trials; the common public in Ukraine largely shared this behold.[100][101][53][102] President Yanukovych denied this.[99]

Kost Bondarenko, chairman of the board of the Institute of Ukrainian Politics, claims the critical sponsors of President Yanukovych’s Occasion of Regions are sad that some Ukrainian politicians own been criminally charged “due to they not in fact feel above the legislation”.[38] The Worldwide Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities spoke in April 2011 of “noteworthy successes in combating corruption in 2010”.[103] The EU Ambassador to Ukraine, Jose Manuel Pinto Teixeira, stated at an investment convention on February 28, 2012 that Yanukovych’s pledges of reform “own regrettably produced no such results.”[53]

In Might maybe maybe 2014, an Anti-Corruption Initiative was once established. In December, it appointed Lithuanian economist and venerable European Commissioner for Taxation and Customs Union, Audit and Anti-Fraud Algirdas Šemeta as Replace Ombudsman.[104]

The Nationwide Anti-Corruption Bureau of Ukraine (NABU) was once established in June 2014 after its predecessor, the Nationwide Anti-Corruption Committee was once understanding to be a failure.

In 2015, President Petro Poroshenko sacked Ihor Kolomoisky — the billionaire governor of the critical industrial position of Dnipropetrovsk. It came after armed men suspected of links to Kolomoisky briefly occupied the areas of work of a reveal-owned oil firm in the capital Kyiv.[105]

On 14 June 2018, a legislation came into force requiring that circumstances relating to corruption be brought straight away to the Excessive Anti-Corruption Court docket of Ukraine.[106][107] In June 2018 President Poroshenko anticipated the court to be established earlier than the tip of 2018.[106] On 5 September 2019 the Excessive Anti-Corruption Court docket did commence as a lot as work.[108]

Due to the IMF disaster that oligarchs would command the courts to rob bailout money, parliament passed a invoice on 13 Might maybe maybe 2020 to forestall courts from reversing monetary institution nationalizations. The invoice would combat a lawsuit by oligarch Ihor Kolomoisky and others looking for to regain preserve an eye fixed on of PrivatBank, the recipient of a $5.5 billion 2016 bailout and an alleged “money laundering machine” under Kolomoisky.[109]

On 27 October 2020, the Constitutional Court docket of Ukraine dominated that anti-corruption legislation, at the side of the indispensable electronic declaration of earnings, was once unconstitutional.[110] President Zelensky warned that if parliament did not restore these anti-corruption licensed pointers, international relief, loans and a visa-free creep to the European Union were at risk. The Governor of the Nationwide Bank of Ukraine reported that Ukraine won’t obtain the scheduled $700 million IMF load earlier than the tip of 2020 due to of the matter. IMF review groups had not visited Kyiv for eight months, which is important for further IMF mortgage tranches to be launched.[111][112]

On 4 December 2020, the Ukrainian parliament restored anti-corruption legislation shut down by the court resolution, when it reauthorised felony penalties for officials who present false records about their incomes.[113] On 29 December 2020 President Volodymyr Zelensky suspended the Constitutional Court docket’s chairperson Oleksandr Tupytskyi [uk] for 2 months to be succesful to overturn the court’s October 2020 resolution.[114]


In accordance with Ukrainians the most indecent are the judiciary, the police, public servants, the successfully being carrier and parliament.[22]

Corruption Perceptions Index rankings[edit]

Corruption Perceptions Index rankings in Ukraine 1998-2018. Lower rankings replicate greater corruption stages, greater rankings mean decrease corruption stages.

Transparency Worldwide produces an annual mumble itemizing each and each nation’s Corruption Perceptions Index fetch. This “fetch relates to perceptions of the stage of corruption as viewed by industrial people and nation analysts and, by plot of 2011, ranged between 10 (extremely orderly) and 0 (extremely indecent).”[115] Within the 2010 mumble, the least indecent nation listed was once Denmark with a fetch of 9.3, and the most indecent of the 178 international locations listed was once Somalia with a fetch of 1.1.[116] From 2012 on, the rankings were presented on a 0-100 scale.[117] Within the 2016 mumble, Denmark was once serene the least indecent nation listed with a fetch of 90, and Somalia was once serene the most indecent of the 176 international locations listed, with a fetch of 10. By comparison, Germany, Luxembourg and the UK tied as 10th least indecent international locations with a fetch of 81, and the US was once 18th least indecent with a fetch of 74.[118]

The next table lists Ukraine’s space in the Corruption Perceptions Index table, consistent with Transparency Worldwide’s annual reports from 1999 onward. The suggestions oldschool in assessing the Index trade from 300 and sixty five days to 300 and sixty five days, so comparisons between years are advanced.

300 and sixty five days Ranking Corruption Thought Index Gain Self belief Fluctuate[119] Comparable outdated Deviation Comparable outdated Error[120] Surveys Broken-down[121] Source
0-10 0-100
1998 69 of 85 2.8 1.6 6 [122]
1999 75 of 99 2.6 1.4 10 [123]
2001 83 of 91 2.1 1.1 6 [124]
2002 85 of 102 2.4 0.7 6 [125]
2003 106 of 133 2.3 0.6 10 [126]
2004 122 of 146 2.2 2.0–2.4 10 [127]
2005 107 of 158 2.6 2.4–2.8 8 [128]
2006 99 of 163 2.8 2.5–3.0 6 [115][129]
2007 118 of 179 2.7 2.4–3.0 7 [130][131]
2008 134 of 180 2.5 2.0–2.8 8 [132][133]
2009 146 of 180 2.2 2.0–2.6 8 [134][135]
2010 134 of 178 2.4 2.1–2.6 8 [116][136]
2011 152 of 183 2.3 2.1–2.5 10 [137][138]
2012 144 of 176 26 24–29 8 [139][117]
2013 144 of 175 25 22–28 8 [140]
2014 142 of 175 26 23-29 1.6 8 [141][142]
2015 130 of 167 27 24-30 5.46 1.93 8 [143]
2016 131 of 176 29 25-32 1.97 9 [118]
2017 130 of 180 30 [144]
2018 120 of 180 32 [145]
2019 126 of 180 30 [146]
2020 117 of 180 33 [147]

In 2014’s Transparency Worldwide Corruption Perceptions Index Ukraine was once ranked 142nd out of the 175 international locations investigated (tied with Uganda and the Comoros).[141]
Existing: For 1999 and 2000, the records were listed as 1998 and 1999 respectively. From 2001, the records listed are stated to be for the 300 and sixty five days of the annual mumble. Up to 2005, the annual mumble integrated some measures of the uncertainty of the index rankings; these records were not eminent from the annual reports from 2006 onwards, but were contained in the CPI mumble.

Public Thought of Corruption in Institutions of Ukraine[edit]

The next table exhibits reasonable rankings from a behold of Ukrainian public understanding of corruption in Ukraine’s establishments. Comparable figures for the UK and the US from surveys for 2009 (for British and American people’s understanding of corruption of their possess international locations) are proven at the backside of the table.

300 and sixty five days Political Parties Parliament Police Replace/ Private Sector Media Public Officials/ Civil Servants Judiciary NGOs Non secular Our bodies Navy Education Machine Source
2007 4.1 4.1 4.1 3.9 3.2 4.2 3.2 2.3 3.1 3.8 [24]
2009 4.4 4.5 4.3 3.8 4.5 4.5 [24][148]
2010 4.0 4.1 4.3 3.7 3.2 4.1 4.4 3.2 2.3 3.5 4.0 [24]
2009 UK 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.5 3.2 2.8 [148]
2009 USA 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.2 [148]
Search recordsdata from: To what extent manufacture you discover the next establishments in this nation to be plagued by corruption? (1: under no circumstances indecent, 5: extremely indecent). [24]

Glance additionally[edit]


  1. ^ UAH 1.5 b in budget funds embezzled since 300 and sixty five days-commence, within minister says Archived June 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (June 18, 2009)
  2. ^ Ukrainians Pessimistic about Country’s Future; Self belief in Political Leaders Falling Archived October 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Worldwide Foundation for Electoral Systems (September 13, 2011)
  3. ^ a b c d e Americans First:The most modern in the see on Ukrainian democracy, Kyiv Publish (11 September 2012)
  4. ^ Bullough, Oliver (February 6, 2015). “Welcome to Ukraine, the most indecent nation in Europe”. The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved Might maybe maybe 11, 2017.
  5. ^ “Detailed results”. EY Fraud Watch. Archived from the typical on November 7, 2018. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  6. ^ “Corruptions Perceptions Index 2020 for Ukraine”. Retrieved February 28, 2022.
  7. ^ a b Onyshkiv, Yuriy (September 2, 2011). “Clearer Image”. Kyiv Publish.
  8. ^ Bazaluk, Oleg (2016). “Introduction”. Corruption in Ukraine: Rulers’ Mentality and the Destiny of the Nation. pp. XIV. ISBN 9781443896894.
  9. ^ Havrylyshyn, Oleh (2017). “Worldwide Comparisons of Corruption Levels”. The Political Economic system of Independent Ukraine: Sluggish Begins, Unsuitable Begins, and a Closing Likelihood?. pp. 255–256. ISBN 978-1-137-57689-7.
  10. ^ a b (in Ukrainian) What a crime, what a punishment. Or why the “people’s resolution” to the president’s first seek recordsdata from won’t surprise anybody, Ukrayinska Pravda (15 October 2020)
  11. ^ a b c Corruption, Democracy, and Investment in Ukraine Archived September 26, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Atlantic Council (October 2007)
  12. ^ a b c Press free up Archived March 8, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, 10th Worldwide Anti-Corruption Convention (2001)
  13. ^ Top- 100 very most attention-grabbing bribes in Ukraine, UNIAN (October 6, 2009)
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Worldwide Corruption File 2008 Archived September 3, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Transparency Worldwide, Chapter 7.4, p. 280.
  15. ^ Under Yanukovych, Ukraine slides deeper in ranks of indecent nations, Kyiv Publish (1 December 2011)
  17. ^ Shuster Live – The answer to fight with corruption in Ukraine. Consequences of corruption in a military – 2,
  18. ^ a b Corruption Plague Kyiv Publish (June 25, 2009).
    Since Ukraine has a inhabitants of about 45 million, $400 million a 300 and sixty five days paid in bribes would equate to $9 per person on reasonable.
  19. ^ Alessandra Prentice (Might maybe maybe 18, 2016). “Ukraine, IMF agree phrases to resume monetary serve – IMF”. Reuters. Retrieved Might maybe maybe 20, 2016.
  20. ^ Neil A. Abrams, M. Steven Fish (Might maybe maybe 5, 2016). “How Western relief enables graft addiction in Ukraine”. Washington Publish. Retrieved Might maybe maybe 20, 2016.
  21. ^ Isabela Cocoli (April 27, 2016). “US Urges Ukraine to Jail Injurious Officials”. Direct of The usa. Retrieved Might maybe maybe 20, 2016.
  22. ^ a b c Transparency Worldwide Worldwide Corruption Barometer: Ukraine has become extra indecent over the final two years, The Ukrainian Week (9 July 2013)
  23. ^ Combating Corruption In Ukraine: Ukrainian Vogue, Gorshenin Institute (July 3, 2011)
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  25. ^ Corruption in the UK: Overview & Policy Ideas, Transparency Worldwide UK, June 2011, ISBN 978-0-9566194-4-0 summary page 2.
  26. ^ a b Transparency Worldwide Worldwide Corruption Barometer 2009 File Archived June 7, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, June 2, 2009, ISBN 978-3-935711-28-9 pdf Abs1: 22, 32, 33.
    In Ukraine, 1200 people were interviewed face to face in a nationwide behold November 4–12, 2008. The behold in the UK was once of 1018 people interviewed on-line November 27 – December 1, 2008. The behold in the U.S. was once of 1017 people interviewed on-line October 30 – November 4, 2008. (pdf ABs1: 22).
  27. ^ Andrew Wilson, Virtual Politics – Faking Democracy in the Publish-Soviet World, Yale College Press (2005), ISBN 0-300-09545-7
  28. ^ Ukrainian Political Technologists and Seven Election Myths by Taras Kuzio, Jamestown Foundation (29 November 2012)
  29. ^ Supreme Court docket of Ukraine resolution referring to the annulment of November 21 vote. Full textual speak material in Ukrainian and Summary in English
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    Committee of Electors of Ukraine registers no critical violations at elections to Ternopil regional council Archived October 1, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (March 16, 2009)
    EU endorses Ukraine election consequence, EU Observer (February 8, 2010)
    Worldwide observers command Ukrainian election was once free and dazzling The Washington Publish (February 9, 2010)
    European Parliament president greets Ukraine on conducting free and dazzling presidential election Kyiv Publish (February 9, 2010)
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    BYT: Worldwide observers were bodily unable to mumble mass irregularities in bustle-off vote Kyiv Publish (February 11, 2009)
    Yanukovych certain Tymoshenko will are attempting to rig results of presidential election Kyiv Publish (December 17, 2009)
    Tymoshenko says she’s going to forestall Yanukovych from rigging presidential election Kyiv Publish (December 17, 2009)
    President’s space of business ex-superior blows Yushchenko-Yanukovych secret deal (January 8, 2010)
    Taras Kuzio, Yushchenko and Yanukovych Forge an Electoral Alliance Kyiv Publish (January 8, 2010)
    Yanukovych’s Occasion Appears To Victory Amid Claims Of Election Fraud, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (November 1, 2010)
    (in Ukrainian) ПР отримала мерів майже в половині областей BBC Ukrainian (November 8, 2010)
    (in Ukrainian) У Криму комуністи і партія «Союз» вимагають перерахунку голосів Archived July 18, 2012, at time, Дзеркало тижня (November 3, 2010)
    Westerners, local observers rip Oct. 31 elections as undemocratic Kyiv Publish (November 5, 2010)
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    Ballot: Most Ukrainians not planning to promote their votes in presidential election Kyiv Publish (January 12, 2010)
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    Tymoshenko blames Firtash and Presidential Secretariat for hryvnia’s crumple UNIAN (December 18, 2008)
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    Lutsenko removed Yushchenko’s portrait from his space of business, Kyiv Publish (December 9, 2009)
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    Yushchenko: Originate checklist of candidates for parliamentary elections a condition for eradicating corruption Kyiv Publish (December 12, 2009)
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