Cadkey or Catia? Boeing’s Billion-Buck 3D CAD Mistake (2017)

Cadkey or Catia? Boeing’s Billion-Buck 3D CAD Mistake (2017)

“All issues commence with a resolution route of, that ends in a
better route of, that ends in an even bigger route of and on and on,
with each advancement offering a extra productive resolution.
Unless something gets within the approach that stops the advancement of
this route of by putting in a powerful less productive route of basically based fully mostly
on politics or vested passion. Right here’s a chronicle of how politics
and vested passion made a resolution that precipitated Boeing to acquire a
Billion-greenback 3D CAD mistake.”

Exchange 5-23-18

Boeing’s circulate to MBE, the spend of PMI because the
engineering deliverable has put them on a course they’ll no longer be in a situation to
get well. This idiotic resolution is gentle procuring for the scenario that
precipitated it. But what is worse, is Boeing has given this costly route of,
legitimacy in many industries!


Exchange 9-13-17

As I ponder on this text I bear in mind that this
resolution by Boeing alone delayed the business as a minimum 12 years from
successfully appealing 3D CAD to the PC. This precipitated an untold amount of
incompatibility within the 3D CAD business. This put the course for the dated
and complex Legitimate/e (Creo) invent scheme to turn into the de facto scheme,
increasing extra incompatibility. Sadly, this methodology used to be adopted by the PLM
gurus, who thought they would possibly maybe maybe maybe maybe additionally digitalize a scheme in accordance with engineering
documents inflicting a substantial records administration mess.

Boeing 747 Flight Deck 1986

I already had 4 years of 3D CAD trip on Computervision CADDS 4
after I took a contract at Boeing Everett 747 flight deck in 1986. It used to be
a drafting job on the board, which bummed me out, however the Seattle home used to be my
home and it used to be fleshy to acquire aid. I stunning had a brand fresh son and uncared for the

The 1980’s – 3D CAD – The Initiating

The crew had 3 seats of Catia 2. They mostly equipped loft traces for
the board draftsman to make spend of for reference. I don’t possess the Catia customers
did any invent. Enjoy Computervision CADDS 4, Catia 2 used to be a 3D wireframe
scheme. The Catia 2 operators were prima donna draftsman. They ran these
programs, with out misfortune costing successfully over a $100,000 each, 8 hours a day. Worth

On my other contracts we were in actual fact designing on Computervision CADDS 4. Most companies
had as a minimum two shifts and some had 3 to acquire these programs price
efficient. These programs weren’t low-price. You had to remove
no longer decrease than 3 seats for $750,000. It came with a mainframe computer in
a tempature controled room,
three terminals, a Versatec plotter, 250 meg removable no longer easy drive,
backup tape scheme and a administration counsel.

As I deem this, handiest
those with govt contracts had extra than 3 seats.

Loads of the companies moved all of their draftsman to CADDS 4. 3D CAD
used to be within the realm of the draftsman in those days because 3D CAD
engineering deliverable used to be gentle the blueprint. These were no longer drawings. We
designed in 3D and created our engineering documentation from
inserting instances of the mannequin in hundreds of views and detailing them and
in conjunction with other annotation to the business drawing requirements.
This used to be Computervision’s declare to reputation: CADDS (Computervision
Automatic Method and Drafting Machine).
Most 3D CAD customers are conversant in this route of this day. The times
of the drawing were long previous.

Truly, this used to be additionally Legitimate/e gross sales level
when launched, “Sooner Drawings”. The efficient spend of the 3D objects as a sample did no longer
showcase up for years and the PDF at the turn of the century.

The Demise of the Drawing

These prints were copied and dealt with stunning love vellum or mylar drawings, but extra than likely launched as microfiche for the elevated companies.
The handiest part hundreds of used to be when a transformation used to be well-known it would possibly maybe well probably maybe be
performed on CADDS 4.

At Boeing there used to be no approach a contractor used to be getting shut to the Catia
scheme. I would moan and groan about being on the board. All straight away a
fellow stated “There is a PC basically based fully mostly 3D CAD scheme on those two Compaqs in
that room”. I already used to be within the sector of PCs. I even had some
trip on AutoCAD. It used to be on my Compaq luggable with a slight amber
music. But I used to be already a 3D CAD mechanical vogue designer and used to be no longer
focused on a badly designed architectural electronic drafting

So, I headed toward the computers. The product used to be CADKEY. It used to be very
powerful love CADDS 4. It had a uncomplicated to make spend of GUI, significantly better than CADDS 4
with its “dig” (digitizer) pen, pill and keyboard enter. CADKEY additionally
had a coloured music which used to be a $25,000 likelihood on CADDS 4. After 2
weeks of lunch hours I talked administration letting me spend on a venture.

An engineer and I proceeded to invent the 747 first observer’s workstation.
We got the outer mildew loft traces for the dwelling traces we were going to
be mounting the dwelling from Catia in IGES.

IGES labored very successfully between the products. It’s moderately comely that
that stage of compatibility used to be programed into the programs at this
stage of introduction of 3D CAD. Later I had the identical success with
Computervision CADDS 4.

The venture went incredibly successfully and administration used to be hugely impressed.
They started ordering seats of CADKEY by the handfuls. We had a list of
folks that were ready anxiously to acquire the subsequent seats. We had an
ongoing list of enhancement requests that we would possibly maybe maybe maybe maybe send to CADKEY that
they would possibly maybe put into effect as rapidly as they would possibly maybe maybe maybe maybe additionally

The be conscious started spreading. Loads of teams would quit by to coordinate and
we would possibly maybe maybe maybe maybe give them an illustration.

We would send HP formatted facts to the print division. Nope, no
plotters within the drafting room. So, we had to wait a couple of days for
our prints to be reviewed for errors, maybe an even bigger invent and to
take a look at.
 CADKEY at that time had
no documentation module, but paunchy drafting capabilities within the 2D/3D
mannequin mode. We would copy the hundreds of views and space them on the identical
stage (which we had 256) and part them. We would put in a border. We
continuously designed and detailed in paunchy measurement and take a look at the print store to
scale the print. This offered some very attention-grabbing issues.

I used to be no longer obvious how Catia 2 labored. But by this time, we had 25 seats of
CADKEY and gentle handiest 3 seats of Catia, mostly being outdated for structural
physique and OML enhance dropped at boost the CADKEY customers.

I used to be put to blame of coaching. It used to be easy, all were experienced
Boeing draftsman, contractors and board engineers that took to CADKEY love fish to water.
Soon the full engineering documentation used to be going out of CADKEY. It used to be
amusing, we promoted the customers to play video games love solitaire to familiarize
themselves with this fresh world of the PC.

All you love to hope to know about 3D CAD coaching!

But no longer all used to be stunning. Computers had been increasing in all business
in accordance with the mainframe computer. The computer teams were gaining energy.
BCS (Boeing Computer Companies and products) energy rapidly surpassed engineering.
Mainframes and workstations were within the realm of BCS, but no longer these
newfangled PCs (Deepest Computers). BCS rapidly found out that it would possibly maybe well probably maybe additionally no longer
administration these PC’s. They were no longer known as Deepest for nothing. BCS hated
CADKEY. We would possibly maybe maybe additionally load it, configure it, licensed it (dongle), maintain it
with out any enter from BCS, Ah, but Catia 2 used to be fully below their administration.

Boeing would possibly maybe maybe additionally beget led the sector into PC basically based fully mostly

Correct a shrimp level – Catia did no longer showcase up on the PC for
one more 12 years.

BCS allowed no programming outside BCS. CADKEY had CADL (CAD Developed
Method Language) love LISP in AutoCAD would allow the particular person to enact easy
programming steps. It can probably maybe additionally additionally be outdated to copy and import objects into
hundreds of CADKEY facts. BCS desired to purchase this integrated characteristic so
no one would possibly maybe maybe additionally program. They were fully out of touch with what used to be
well-known and required and moderately insane.

They’d run into the crew love the Gestapo ready to punish someone
that would possibly maybe maybe defy them.
were many battles that occurred. The Boeing draftsmen are no longer basically the most
congenial bunch. They knew their stuff and knew when they being fed BS.
It grew to turn into a fight ground. CADKEY used to be rapidly hated by BCS and I’m obvious
they swore they would possibly maybe acquire rid of it.

There were a couple of us who seen the gentle and determined to blueprint a
business selling CADKEY. We all invested in a $3,000.00 286 computer,
who would believe a newfangled 386, CADKEY $3,500.00 and a $2,500.00 19
lunge music. This used to be a substantial investment for a couple of draftsman,
$9000.00. These were seasoned Boeing lead draftsmen and one engineer. We
seen the productiveness will increase. It in actuality used to be a no brainer. I discovered out out
very rapidly Boeing staff acquire tainted businessmen. 40 hours used to be their
most work week. All had spare time activities and entering staunch into a business stunning
didn’t match their existence vogue. Extra about this later.

I used to be performing successfully beyond my job title and determined to be paid for it,
in spite of the total lot I used to be a job consumer. They offered me a greenback. My price:
$20.00. I took a $15.00 decrease to acquire home. Neatly, out went my resume and I got a
job with Sq. D in Lincoln, NE. I will record you the ultimate part stunning
about Lincoln used to be the folks, because moreover corn fields there would possibly maybe be
nothing there.

They had Computervision CADDS 4 monochrome shows. I used to be already
terrifying by a contract at Solar Mills in San Diego the put they
converted to coloured monitors. I like a flash brought
out my unbelievable CADKEY scheme and confirmed them how I could maybe maybe additionally with out misfortune
outperform their CADDS 4 the spend of IGES, this used to be all 2D/3D wireframe.
Be conscious the Boeing fellows. Neatly they stunning didn’t are attempting to be segment of
the business. So, I started my firm TECH-NET and offered Sq. D three
CADKEY programs, I possess it used to be the color monitors that offered them. The three
paunchy programs were handiest $10,000 extra than a single color music for CV. But
this sale put me within the PC and PC basically based fully mostly 3D CAD business.

In 1988 I came aid home to the Seattle home and established TECH-NET.
We were a CADKEY Dealer. This used to be additionally the initiating put of wide spend of the
PC. We were selling hardware and scheme love crazy. Networking used to be no longer
included with the MCDOS scheme so we had moderately an operation going.

Being successfully experienced with the interoperability between CADKEY and
Catia 2 at Boeing I started selling CADKEY to each Boeing dealer.
CADKEY used to be the ultimate efficient PC basically based fully mostly 3D CAD scheme within the marketplace. I
used to be no longer the Boeing CADKEY dealer. If I used to be issues would possibly maybe maybe additionally want been
hundreds of.

Boeing had 1500 seats of CADKEY within the business division. How within the sector did
they clarify changing them with Catia 2? This used to be gentle pre-1990. Catia
stunning moved to IBM Unix workstations. What used to be the gargantuan succor that
used to be price roughly $50,000 to $60,000 per seat extra?

To acquire this circulate stranger, all Boeing staff
had a PC. All communications were now on the PC. Why within the sector would
they add the complexity of a Unix scheme?

The full CADKEY PCs were on the identical network offering and receiving the
identical records. By 1988 CADKEY had an integrated documentation module
known as the structure mode and 1989 Fastsurf, an intermediate surfacing
package, that with out misfortune matched Catia 3 at the time. This used to be additionally the time
Windows used to be changing into widely accredited. Be conscious, if many of possibilities are you’ll maybe maybe additionally, the
PC started with the MS-DOS scheme. CADKEY ran on DOS and I had to spend
CADKEY kicking and screaming into the Age of Windows. I endure in suggestions how we
had twin releases for CADKEY 7. Windows or DOS. I used to be an edlin (edit
line) programming king.

 An inner shaggy dog chronicle for only a couple of folks.

So, it is 1989, CADKEY and Catia 3 were equally loyal. I’m stunning
assuming this since I never even seemed at Catia 3 particular person interface or its
traditional 3D CAD scheme. Boeing Flight Deck had 45 CADKEY seats and I’m
obvious were all designing and extending prints. They even eliminated one of the most Catia 3 stations, I used to be in shut contact with those folks. Made many
shut chums. I won’t even record you about my going away acquire collectively.
Whew!! I used to be gentle supporting many of them with CADKEY though I used to be
no longer the dealer.

I used to be having month-to-month particular person crew conferences. We had substantial seminars presented
by CADKEY. We were flying. Many Boeing engineers, designers and
draftsman would possibly maybe maybe be in attendance. The NW used to be within the 3D CAD world.

What would acquire Boeing decide to make spend of Catia 3 over a extra productive, price
efficient, with out misfortune maintained and PC Essentially basically based 3D CAD scheme? It used to be no longer over
evening. I used to be no longer within the know regarding the relationship with CADKEY and
Boeing. But there used to be a push for Catia. I undoubtedly don’t even endure in suggestions
what came about. The customary engineering deliverable used to be the print. It
wasn’t unless free create surfacing confirmed up did the 3D mannequin turn into of
price with PC basically based fully mostly 3 axis CNC programs, love Neat CAM, MasterCAM, SurfCAM and
others when the IGES mannequin turn into segment of the engineering deliverable.

Let’s stunning spend the 1500 choice of CADKEY seats that had to be changed.
I know this used to be a gradual route of that moved into the early 1990’s.

Let’s teach a CADKEY dwelling price Boeing $7,000.00 with the scheme, PC
and 19-lunge CRT music (good dwelling). Enjoy I stated sooner than, all Boeing
staff had PCs anyway. The CADKEY PC scheme offered powerful extra than
stunning a 3D CAD scheme it offered a door to the PC world, be conscious processing,
spread sheets, scheduling scheme scheme, what all of us beget now used to be
mostly all there then. Nope, no cyber web, but Boeing had a fleshy
inner networking scheme.

Boeing opted to employ, let’s acquire it low-price, and stunning price 10 instances the
price to $70,000 per seat. But endure in suggestions these were Unix seats and well-known
a crew of Unix experts to elevate them. We know that they had a minimum
crew of PC experts to elevate them. Now they doubled the IT crew

Ah, maybe that answers the CADKEY or Catia take a look at.

Who benefited by this circulate? Completely no longer engineering. They were fully jubilant with
CADKEY and the PC. Be conscious I used to be one of them for a couple of years. In
truth, I gentle used to be doing consulting for Boeing and quite lots of my possibilities. My
CADKEY coaching courses were paunchy of Boeing draftsman and invent

The handiest crew that would possibly maybe maybe succor by this circulate used to be BCS (Boeing Computer
Companies and products) and, for sure, Dassault. Belief me they were to blame and
hugely influential.

So, what did this circulate price the firm stunning the spend of the 1500 seats. Don’t
forget to encompass the total logistics!


But that used to be stunning the initiating put of the substantial costs of this resolution.


I’m sorry but I must enact an apart here at the moment and introduce Legitimate/e.
It performs a substantial segment later on this drama.

All the excessive-discontinuance programs were taking part in with solids. Mostly Boolean
operations. Each and each Computervision and Catia has some create of right mannequin

But something confirmed up within the market space in 1988 that put 3D CAD on a
course that couldn’t handiest lengthen the price of engineering for Boeing but
the full business.

Can you wager?

PTC (Parametric Technology Corporation) came out with a right modeling
package known as Legitimate/Engineer.

31 Years of 3D CAD Incompatibility

Now, Legitimate/e used to be the first, as far as I know, 3D CAD scheme that had right
modeling designed from the bottom up. It used to be delivered on a Unix
workstation that were now accessible at a excessive, but no longer out of attain,
price as when put next to Computervision CADDS 4 and Catia 3.

It used to be a extraordinarily convoluted scheme that outdated a unusually devised historical previous of
parts in accordance with tiny one/mother or father relationships. That you would possibly maybe additionally invent and all
the invent steps were accessible. That you would possibly maybe additionally additionally program parts and
assemblies and blueprint
household of parts in accordance with these programs.

Parametric Modeling At ultimate Outlined

I undoubtedly wish to dispute it used to be a miracle. It used to be very, very wise.

But while it used to be very modern it used to be incredibly unsuitable. It had a
separate segment, assembly and drawing formats. I’m obvious the thought used to be
to be in a situation to describe parts to at least one one more and blueprint constraints between
parts. Exchange one part and all affected parts change. Large thought. Of
route, none of those fellows were engineering kinds. I outdated to chortle as
I used to be explained this thought.

You beget gotten a administration cable working down the keel of an airplane and the
cable moved and all clearance holes in each physique associated to that cable would additionally

Modified into I the ultimate one which ever met Mr. Murphy?

Unnecessary to teach, it took powerful beyond regular time to invent something else. Many engineers had
to turn into programmers. You would possibly maybe maybe invent the parts then insert them into
the assembly. All parts were associated to the assembly. 100 parts, 100
associations to elevate. Hello is Mr. Murphy there? So, for sure, PDM
grew to turn into a nightmare. No, no PDM used to be no longer (Piece Doc Management) this
grew to turn into (Product Files Management) hmm who would provide you with that timeframe?
Ah, enter the InfoTechs, yes, the IT folks now were known as in to
maintain these associated “Pieces of Files” The easy document administration
of the previous used to be now within the palms of the IT folks defining PDM programs
for the 3D CAD customers. Which for sure now had to realise records
administration. Mr. Murphy used to be having a field day, laughing and pondering how
would possibly maybe maybe additionally he acquire it worse.

Yes, he made it worse!!

Enter PLM (Product Lifecycle Management) this used to be an stepped forward PDM scheme
that used to be to handle complete initiatives. Modified into it designed by engineers, draftsman
and document administration experts? Oh no, none of those folks had the
academic credentials or applicable Infotech records regarded to boot-known to
reinvent this fresh wheel.

The Demise of PLM?

Have I uncared for something???

Oh, yes we gentle had the print to fright about. No, no they were no longer
drawings. But endure in suggestions Legitimate/e engineering deliverable used to be gentle these
associated records documents, gentle known as drawings? It can probably maybe
continue to be so unless the turn of the century. Yes, there used to be .dxf.
But it undoubtedly used to be no longer in actuality a extinct. No program would import the .dxf
wisely, and for sure, it would possibly maybe well probably maybe maybe maybe change with ever model of AutoCAD.

As for the spend of the mannequin for manufacturing,
it started with IGES which first were in 3D wireframe, then in a ground structure, for sure,
appealing to solids within the mid 1990’s. IGES launched a right mannequin
translation but rapidly used to be changed with the fresh, extra sturdy, STEP


Accurate God, even lowly CADKEY that used to be
developed by engineers had IGES and STEP. It used to be stunning too obvious. But
the CADKEY developers were powerful, powerful smarter, they in actual fact included
the documentation within the identical file because the 3D modeled segment and assy.

The Integrated Drawing in 3D CAD

It’s miles a tiny bit confusing, you had to beget documentation. CNC used to be in its
infancy at the time of the liberate of Legitimate/e. Oh, deem me, I will acquire into that

Ah, the associated separate drawing used to be a misnomer for obvious, since we
didn’t scheme something else anymore precipitated substantial issues for PDM and PLM. Now
you had the 3D modeled segment and an associated document to elevate. Hmmm
here is powerful extra than a tiny bit confusing. Kill you perceive even this day the 3D
modeled segment doesn’t encompass the records that there would possibly maybe maybe additionally be an associated drawing?
No longer doable you teach? Ship up your favourite Solidworks segment.

I won’t hurry into the advanced operation of Legitimate/e. It used to be incredibly
abnormal and there used to be nothing that would possibly maybe maybe additionally compete. I wager the demos were
unbelievable as overview to what?? Nothing. Computervision and Catia were
gentle combating Boolean solids. PTC promised to decrease drawing
time of 90% one fellow knowledgeable me. Unnecessary to teach, designing in Legitimate/e used to be and
gentle is torturous.

The Legitimate/e salesman would possibly maybe maybe additionally run in to those fleshy
companies, put collectively the Unix scheme and give them an illustration. Can you
place confidence in how powerful extra easy as when put next to the substantial networked
Computervision or Catia programs that were handiest wireframe at the time?

Legitimate/e used to be a Miracle.

K, K… that is ample about Legitimate/e for now. I will leave you with
one horribly devastating truth. All PLM is in accordance with the Legitimate/e paradigm of
separate parts, assemblies and documentation. Didn’t someone deem
making the CAD scheme extra records obedient??? Nope, none were engineers or
draftsman who utilized this mess of convoluted processes.

Succor to CADKEY and Catia

We can now circulate to 1991 and CADKEY and Catia 3. Life used to be stunning,
engineering used to be getting performed. Just a few fresh issues confirmed up
stereolithography (STL) and CNC programming. We were now designing with
surfacing to provide each of those technologies with functional
formatted records.

I endure in suggestions doing a job for Spacelabs. In CADKEY they desired to acquire one
of those fresh stereolithography parts made. They gave me a 3D wireframe
plastic segment with out a draft. Designers infrequently ever designed with draft in
those days. In 3D wireframe it used to be hard. Think regarding the spherical
shapes (blends or fillets). They wanted me so that you just would possibly maybe add the draft, now that we
had 3D parts and would possibly maybe maybe additionally ground the mannequin for STL. I knowledgeable them 55 hours.
They stated it didn’t spend that lengthy to invent. I stated than you would possibly want to always
beget designed it with draft. I did the job.

Correct a amusing apart! A one year later I got a identical job. Yes, they came
aid to me. But this time CADKEY had solids. 15 hours. Yes, solids were
powerful, powerful extra productive.

Obtain Modeling shows up on the PC.

In 1995 right modeling confirmed up all over. Each and each Parasolid (UGS) and
ACIS right modeling kernels grew to turn into accessible.
All straight away many PC basically based fully mostly 3D CAD programs started taking pictures up,
Solidworks, Trispectives, CorelCAD, TurboCAD and some extra.

The 1990’s – 3D CAD/CAM Strikes to the PC!!

CADKEY had a 3D right modeling module known as FastSolids from the creator
of Fastsurf, Robert White, showcase up. After one seminar, I used to be getting
orders for the beta liberate. All my possibilities were ready to circulate to
right modeling.

FastSolid used to be a Boolean scheme in accordance with ACIS, the put you would add or
subtract shapes to enact your invent. This used to be nothing love the historical previous of
Legitimate/e. While it used to be fully functional possibilities are you’ll maybe maybe additionally no longer undoubtedly edit the

I used to be additionally trying at many of the opposite fresh products popping out. One
being Trispectives. It used to be additionally an ACIS scheme that would possibly maybe maybe additionally hurry right
objects to FastSolids. But it undoubtedly used to be a graphic invent package
with rendering and animation and a particular plod and descend shapes from a
catalog. It used to be unbelievable mixture. We did shows with
transparent shapes, labels and animation that would possibly maybe maybe rival the programs of
this day.

The engineering world had changed. Obtain modeling used to be at the moment king. Of
route, we gentle outdated 2D/3D wireframe and surfacing to spice up it.

Catia 4 used to be launched. It equipped right modeling. It used to be a Boolean
scheme love CADKEY. The Boeing suppliers were now getting right mannequin
from Boeing gentle in IGES after which in STEP. Each and each Boeing dealer moved
to CNC. We offered Surfcam at the time. We were appropriate within the course of the
action and transition.

Nothing changed with engineering documentation
by in conjunction with Solids to the route of. Yes, right modeling will increase productiveness across the board. They gentle were increasing paunchy prints, now
known as by the Boeing draftsman the “flat file”, but now included used to be a
usable 3D mannequin.

All used to be stunning!!

I endure in suggestions calling one of the most teams at Boeing. I had about 85 active
seats gentle within the business division. I known as to promote
extra CADKEY. BCS used to be no longer moderately as timorous about CADKEY since it had all
pleasant engineering in Catia. The fellow asked me: “Does it beget
historical previous basically based fully mostly modeling?” I presumed why is he asking that. I stated “Why
would you love to beget historical previous modeling, Boolean is powerful sooner and more straightforward”. He
answered “Oh, now we want to beget historical previous wicked right modeling”.

I used to be selling CADKEY love crazy. Be conscious Trispectives? Neatly, they were
sold by a firm that offered CoCreate (Now Creo State) and they within the course of increasing IronCAD.
CoCreate used to be a Boolean handiest scheme love CADKEY and Catia. But IronCAD
had historical previous and they added the Boolean operation. But at the moment, they
moved into tell enhancing. Ah, the adaptation please.

Boolean Method

This form used to be in accordance with in conjunction with and subtracting shapes. It used to be in accordance with
sketches and had extrude, revolve, sweep and loft instructions. That you would possibly maybe additionally
add fillets. But there used to be no recognition of those parts. You wanted
to alter a hole you deleted the weak one and put in a brand fresh one.

State Edit

love Boolean Method but provides feature recognition. You would possibly maybe maybe maybe behold
and in actual fact edit the hole or mix. Today time the tell edit performance is terribly
highly efficient. It’s powerful, powerful extra flexible than historical previous basically based fully mostly handiest invent.

I used to be proven Solidwork and offered a dealership. I seemed at it, chuckled
and stated “Who would spend or remove this a part of crap”. How used to be I to know that Dassault used to be ready to remove Solidworks for $310,000,000 in inventory. Why
would they enact the kind of part? Solidworks used to be a tainted Legitimate/e knock off
and handiest had 6000 seat which most were academic. Oh, yeah, Catia 5 used to be
appropriate around the nook. Extra on that later.

It used to be 1998 I used to be now selling each CADKEY and IronCAD.

These were no longer trivial programs.

CADKEY used to be appealing appropriate along. They added a parametric or historical previous basically based fully mostly
module. Known as creatively “CADKEY Parametric”. This used to be the business’s
first simply hybrid 3D CAD modeler.

It had 2D/3D wireframe, paunchy free create surfacing, tell edit right
modeling and now historical previous basically based fully mostly parametric right modeling “ALL IN ONE
INTEGRATED PACKAGE”. Be conscious possibilities are you’ll maybe maybe additionally enact your parts, assembly and
drawings in one file.

CADKEY grew to turn into the sector’s first fully functional 3D Hybrid modeler. We
gave a presentation to Boeing business in Everett the Boeing folks
were drooling. So, what came about here? I will level to later. Today time, that
mantle is held by ZW3D.

IronCAD has a single mannequin atmosphere and the ultimate package with in actuality
integrated historical previous and tell enhancing. I started selling each programs.
IronCAD is the fastest conceptual invent program and I used to be appealing a couple of
CADKEY customers. But its lack of surfacing restricted the gross sales.

2000 – Catia 5

Be conscious I stated that deciding on Catia over CADKEY price Boeing hundreds and hundreds of
dollars. That did no longer quit over the subsequent 12 or 13 years. If I didn’t
come along and provide CADKEY to the full Boeing suppliers would someone
else had? I don’t know. But I used to be within the center offering the
interoperability with Boeing and their suppliers. Enjoy I stated Catia 4
used to be no longer accessible to even the fleshy suppliers. If it wasn’t for this
CADKEY love minded resolution, the spend of Catia would beget price powerful, powerful

I’m obvious Boeing used to be oblivious to this truth.

Hazard, Will Robinson!!

Sooner or later I got a name from a Boeing Vendor. He stated: “Joe, Boeing is
no longer supplying drawings anymore.” Boeing had moved to Catia 5 with out any
sight to the dealer. They were now turning within the records in a
weird inaccessible 3D structure. They did no longer know what to enact.

With Catia 5 now accessible on the PC many had to remove a seat. Dassault
additionally equipped Enovia. An costly and undoubtedly convoluted Catia 5 viewer.

I undoubtedly am no longer obvious what they were turning in for an engineering
deliverable. The PMI (Product Manufacturing Files) used to be being
developed. Right here is de facto a 3D drawing. All the engineering
records used to be to be included in a single native file in 3D home. You
well-known a Catia 5 or Enovia seat to behold it.

PMI vs AID (Associated Files Doc

Succor to Legitimate/e and the separate segment, assembly and drawing.

Neatly, Catia 5
used to be most frequently a Legitimate/e clone. I continuously puzzled why they sold
Solidworks and the full vogue crew. PMI is nothing extra than
a heart-broken effort to again with document administration now name PDM (Product Files
Management). This used to be now being pushed by an effort to acquire the mannequin
the engineering authority as a change of the documentation. Right here is named
MBE (Mannequin Essentially basically based Enterprise) the spend of MBD (Mannequin Essentially basically based Method) the spend of the
native PMI because the engineering deliverable.

The suppliers were up in arms. But Boeing engage that they would possibly maybe circulate to
this methodology and now Dassault Catia 5 PLM used to be the premise of their engineering
scheme. The engineering scheme is the premise of the firm operation.
This circulate affected all company operations.

On this resolution, I’m no longer obvious the blueprint it came down, but Boeing determined
they did no longer want the Drafting Neighborhood or Doc Retain watch over Neighborhood and now
trusted Dassault’s PLM scheme to administer the full engineering
route of. As for the draftsman, 3D CAD undoubtedly doesn’t beget a space for
them (extra on this later). An engineer can enact all of it. Now they’re, what I name, the 3D CAD

How CADKEY would possibly maybe maybe additionally beget eliminated the need for PLM, MBE and PMI?

CADKEY is a simply single mannequin atmosphere. That you would possibly maybe additionally with out misfortune invent your parts, assemblies
and sub-assemblies in one file. Also possibilities are you’ll maybe maybe additionally enact your drawings within the identical

With the drawing included with the segment or
assembly: would they’ve well-known to hurry to a advanced convoluted PLM scheme
that attempted to make spend of the native scheme within the create of a PMI to simplify

Potentially no longer. We would gentle be working with a powerful extra manageable 3D
mannequin and the associated integrated documentation. It used to be amusing as Catia 5 and this PLM scheme
used to be being launched and they were attempting to solve the scenario with
affirming the separate print, Adobe launched the PDF, with out misfortune fixing
the separate print scenario and leaving the engineering documentation in
stone delivered outside the native CAD scheme.

If Boeing would beget chosen CADKEY the following misfortune would beget
never occurred. With the enhance of Boeing, CADKEY would possibly maybe maybe additionally beget reached a
stage of productiveness that Boeing doesn’t scrutinize this day or ever will scrutinize within the lengthy flee.

Catia 4 to Catia 5 Fiasco!

Now for the lifetime of me, a Boeing trained draftsman, an person that used to be
trained by and labored for basically the most unbelievable engineering firm on the earth, with the
most unbelievable engineering and manufacturing requirements, why would
Boeing acquire this obviously no longer thought via resolution.

Boeing used to be no longer alone on this resolution. Airbus additionally made this circulate, but
with out a CADKEY likelihood.

Why used to be this resolution made on this vogue. It used to be being made by
BCS and the Infotechs that had no ability or applicable records to
differentiate between the relative significance’s! Yes, they’re gentle in

Catia 4 and Catia 5 would possibly maybe maybe additionally no longer be taught the others facts.

The 777 used to be designed in Catia 3, but now all
airplanes were being modified with Catia 4 with the introduction in

It used to be unbelievable. There were no translators equipped by Dassault!!!

Catia 4 used to be immoral ample. It can probably maybe additionally handiest
import/export IGES and STEP. Wait a minute, Catia 5 would possibly maybe maybe additionally handiest
import/export IGES and STEP!

We all heard the chronicle regarding the electronic cable bundles for the Airbus
380 no longer fitting due to the attempted mixing of the two scheme.

I won’t hurry into the price of this horribly devastating no longer thought
via resolution.

Can any of you PC basically based fully mostly 3D CAD customers place confidence in this. That you would possibly maybe beget
thought there would were as a minimum ahead compatibility.

Why within the sector would they name it Catia 5. I used to be no longer love minded in any appreciate
with Catia 4. Why no longer an fully fresh title. It’s love a bunch of
amateurs are to blame at Dassault, Boeing, Airbus and any other Catia 4
customers that fell into this entice.

Sadly, this mess is gentle occurring this day.

Exchange 2-20-19

Catia 6 used to be launched in 2009 and no longer adopted by any of the
Catia 5 fundamental customers. Today time, Dassault is pushing the 3DExperience, I
can no longer impart regarding the price fervent with this circulate!

Succor to CADKEY

At the turn of the century, the folks at CADKEY determined to copy the
package in a brand fresh programing language. I won’t hurry into that fiasco but
what came out of it used to be KeyCreator. Right here is now an fully functional hybrid
modeler. Sadly, the unbelievable historical previous basically based fully mostly parametric capabilities were never to
be included.

I changed many of the CADKEY in Boeing with KeyCreator. Ensuing from the
bumpy introduction of KeyCreator I had misplaced hundreds of seats of CADKEY.

But KeyCreator gentle used to be the finest enhance scheme for each Catia 4 and
Catia 5. Soon native translators to the total popular programs started
exhibiting up on the PC basically based fully mostly products. Each and each KeyCreator and IronCAD would possibly maybe maybe additionally
import Legitimate/e, Solidwork, Inventor and UG native facts. But even better
they would possibly maybe maybe maybe maybe additionally import and export native Catia 4 and Catia 5 facts.

All any other time, Joe to the rescue. I convinced the business division to remove a
seat of KeyCreator to convert Catia 5, Solidworks, Legitimate/e, UG, Inventor
and the total customary formats to Catia 4. The fellow to blame seemed
love a one legged man in an ass kicking contest. He used to be working hours
and hours bringing in native facts and converting them to Catia 4. Why?
Unnecessary to teach, you wouldn’t take a look at.

Catia 4 would possibly maybe maybe additionally handiest handle a 34 meg file!!!

Yes, he would bring within the facts, edit them in KeyCreator by reducing
the scale and put them as Catia 4 facts. He used to be hugely a success.

Subsequent take a look at??

Why didn’t every crew remove a seat of KeyCreator
to enact their very own translations?

Boeing had a translation crew. Each and each take a look at took no longer decrease than two
weeks. I confirmed the crew manager straight importing a Solidworks and a Catia 5
file into KeyCreator and IronCAD and blueprint a Catia 4 file.

Catia 4.5=The Catia incompatibility Solution

All any other time, politics obtained! This guy had a tiny little bit of energy and used to be no longer going
to let it hurry. Can you focus on what number of suppliers Boeing has that spend
hundreds of CAD programs and had to assassinate 3D objects? Galley, seats,
instrumentation, electronics, and loads others. All the pieces came via this guy.

His complete crew would were eliminated. I possess Boeing is gentle
the spend of this route of.

Worth to Boeing? Incredible.

“I in actual fact beget labored with
Boeing and Catia for over 30 years. Dassault is guilty for retaining
Boeing one of basically the most ignorant and isolated manufacturing companies.
Their lack of interoperability is beyond belief.”

The above used to be a quote from one of my other articles.

I continue to work with Boeing suppliers. To on at the moment time and age Boeing is gentle
having issues with communicating with the suppliers.

Succor to PMI

In 2007 PMI used to be changing staunch into a scenario. Adobe launched a
package, Acrobat 3D. I used to be fervent with this package. It can probably maybe be taught a Catia 5 file with PMI and make it more straightforward to behold the PMI and import the segment as a

It used to be getting substantial enhance by Boeing. All straight away Adobe discontinued it.
They offered it to at least one more firm that is gentle offering it this day. I
never understood it. A low-price technique to behold the PMI.

Today time, you wish to
watch it, nearly no advertising and marketing. Despite the total lot of those years there has no requirements put for
this PMI structure. How would possibly maybe maybe additionally there be one? They’re in accordance with the hundreds of
CAD programs native
file. Correct retaining up with the hundreds of releases would blueprint chaos.

I will handiest steal that this would possibly maybe beget decrease
into the administration and profits of Dassault. I’m obvious that they knowledgeable
Boeing it would possibly maybe well probably maybe maybe maybe no longer be in their easiest passion.

Boeing now demands that the dealer can be taught the native Catia file and
enact a validation of the segment to make sure it is miles the identical because the segment going
into the CNC. Right here is an extraordinarily costly time difficult convoluted route of. But
endure in suggestions the 3D mannequin is now the authority and Catia 5 locations out a couple of of the
extra terrifying parts within the business.

Compare and Validation Programs?

Band-Aids for Self-Inflicted Wounds!

Rotten 3D CAD Parts

I enact promote ZW3D and it imports PMI from Creo, NX, Catia and Solidworks.
So, must you wish to beget entry to PMI please undoubtedly be at liberty to present me a

Free PMI Importer?

That about brings us up to the showcase. Nothing has changed at Boeing
and I impart Airbus for years. But engineering costing them a fortune.

Is Catia 5 the Worst 3D CAD Machine within the World?

You be the engage!

The Worst to Ideal 3D CAD Programs Expanded!

I will record you after 30 years of selling a spread of 3D CAD programs, and
competing in opposition to many others, that Catia 5 is the worst CAD scheme in
the sector. It’s devastating for Boeing, Airbus or any fleshy engineering
firm that has a fleshy turnover of engineers.

Why, Joe?

Catia 5 is stunning one of this day’s popular programs which can additionally very successfully be nothing extra
than Legitimate/e (Creo) clones. It’s miles a historical previous basically based fully mostly handiest invent package. It
is no longer any longer conducive for efficient speedy invent. Now a smaller firm with a
right crew would possibly maybe maybe additionally tolerate a historical previous handiest basically based fully mostly scheme, a fleshy
engineering firm with a excessive turn over of 3D CAD engineers can no longer provide you with the cash for
the tainted overhead with this create of scheme.

I in actual fact beget many opinions on historical previous and tell edit. I promote IronCAD and
ZW3D that beget integrated tell enhancing. While I love historical previous for
conceptual invent I will on occasion fully blow my historical previous and
continue to work with a mixture of historical previous and tell edit.

Very fleshy engineering companies will deserve to beget sturdy integrated tell
enhancing accessible.

Even better beget fully functional integrated
hybrid modeling, in conjunction with 2D/3D wire physique, free create surfacing and
historical previous/tell edit right modeling.

Final 3D CAD Machine

The handiest constant in engineering is change!

Subsequent Era 3D CAD Technology Applied!

While there are a couple of parts love helical shapes that can no longer be
edited, I would teach 95% of the parts will be straight edited with
this day’s tell edit handiest or folks who beget each historical previous and integrated
tell edit programs. Take into consideration how powerful more straightforward that is susceptible to be for an
engineer no longer conversant in a segment to be productive? Think regarding the time
that is being taken by a brand fresh engineer now guilty to alter the
mannequin figuring out how the mannequin used to be made and how one can acquire the changes.
Historical previous handiest programs query a excessive stage of intelligence and trip
to be productive.

Is 3D CAD Productiveness an Oxymoron?

I in actual fact beget a little bit of writing the put I introduce Streamline
Sketching and Characteristic Essentially basically based Modeling that can lengthen modeling
productiveness even in basically the most Solidwork-ish programs.

3D Modeling Tactics Outlined

Dassault launched a package known as Solidworks Conceptual Method. It used to be
in accordance with the Catia modeling kernel. It undoubtedly is no longer any longer fully
love minded with traditional Solidworks any extra than any other package. This
is a package that helps you to invent in a single mannequin atmosphere
the spend of every tell edit and historical previous. No documentation module.

Welcome aboard Solidworks Rewritten!

But for the lifetime of me, I enact no longer perceive why they didn’t liberate this
to the Catia 5 community and aid a couple of of the ache of the historical previous
basically based fully mostly handiest program.

It’s in accordance with the Catia modeling kernel!! How
would possibly maybe maybe additionally this be overlooked?

One Boeing fellow knowledgeable me a chronicle of a Catia 5 operator that had to
be taught Catia 4. His conception: Catia 4 used to be an even bigger invent scheme. What??
And CADKEY used to be powerful, significantly better than Catia 4.

Boeing this day

Now the draftsmen are long previous. The engineers are producing minimized PMI.
Murphy is working rampant via Boeing engineering on the invent facet.
They’re making suppliers soar via hoop after hoop making the full
parts extra costly.

Dassault’s PLM and Infotech gurus are now
working the showcase!

The Boeing draftsman were employee bees. They kept the total lot in line.
They made obvious the documentation used to be complete and appropriate. They launched
and maintained the documentation. This used to be no easy feat because the engineers
are now are checking out.

The Demise of the Draftsman or “Where has the full talent long previous?”

Now, I undoubtedly must agree that there would possibly maybe be no longer a want for the draftsman
anymore. But now we beget a brand fresh situation. The 3D CAD engineer. In the previous,
many of the divulge and on occasion sophisticated invent used to be performed by the

Teaching the New 3D CAD Engineer – 2015

Modified into the circulate to Catia 5 the put off? No longer fully, here is inevitable with
any 3D CAD scheme. CADKEY with the integrated drawings would possibly maybe maybe additionally beget put the
draftsman in a hundreds of gentle. But PMI create of took the full emphasis
off fully detailing the parts and resulted briefly slicing
engineering with devastating results.

Engineering’s handiest cause is to acquire accessible concise, complete
and unambiguous documentation to  manufacturing.

The engineers enact no longer beget a stunning invent and
documentation scheme in space with stunning
checking procedures. I in actual fact were knowledgeable that Boeing has put collectively a Produciblity Neighborhood to overview the launched engineering. I don’t know what
occurs within the occasion that they get the segment can no longer be made or there are errors. Yes, I
beget had a couple of dealer record me that they had to record Boeing a segment
would possibly maybe maybe maybe no longer be made.

I continuously thought the PMI used to be created to beget handiest one document. But now
I’m knowledgeable Boeing has no longer decrease than 2 extra documents that scuttle with it.

All stunning to interchange the easy drawing, which this day is no longer any longer even a
drawing but an with out misfortune created associated records document made by
detailing positioned instances of the segment.

So, there you hurry. I will record you that Boeing has spent billions and is
gentle spending hundreds and hundreds attempting to acquire Catia 5 and its PLM/MBE/PMI
scheme work.

Right here’s a commentary by an trip 3D CAD engineer that is forced to make spend of
this unsuitable MBE/MBD/PMI scheme.

“The gargantuan scenario is, any failure will be blamed on the
guilty engineers and no longer an unworkable scheme. MBE is already being
backstopped by drawings in many organizations which can additionally very successfully be forced to make spend of
MBE, however the drawings are usually no longer within the liberate administration route of
because they are no longer the “fundamental” records riding fabrication. A ravishing

Why MBE/MBD/PMI Will Fail I

Why MBE/MBD/PMI Will Fail Piece II

PLM/MBE/PMI Absurdity!!

Engineering Documentation Today time!


1. Doc Retain watch over

Please be taught these articles. I wrote them purposely sooner than writing this text.

Fashioned Cloud Essentially basically based
Engineering Doc Retain watch over

Fashioned Cloud Essentially basically based
Engineering Doc Retain watch over Piece II

We circulate aid to increasing fully detailed
associated records documents (drawings). No, we don’t want
to hurry to the necessities of yesteryear, since we now encompass the 3D mannequin
as a comparability.
However the second take a look at equipped by fully detailing the segment like a flash
exposes errors or an even bigger invent. It additionally affords a powerful sooner and
more straightforward overview of the document. The Onshape thought is de facto a bucket
the put possibilities are you’ll maybe maybe additionally upload and retailer any create of documentation in conjunction with a
stay 3D behold of the mannequin. This in actuality is the good resolution. No
particular scheme, stunning an OnShape love cloud basically based fully mostly document administration
program, a web browser and an Apple or PC.

Checking, Method Overview, Manufacturing and Files Extraction!

We circulate Doc Retain watch over out of engineering and staunch into a crew that
is guilty for making obvious that the records it up to this level and readily accessible.


No longer doable to Use the Native CAD File because the Engineering Deliverable!

To spend this thought, Boeing can with out misfortune continue the spend of Catia 5. Correct
commence doing complete associated records documents (drawings) and converting them to a PDF. Compile the
engineering deliverable out of native Catia 5 scheme. Dassault additionally
must work to blueprint a right 3D mannequin that can guarantee the integrity
of the segment and can safely be exported as a
step and no longer be terrifying. Having so many hundreds of 3D CAD programs
accessible has restricted the interoperability. Sadly, the fundamental CAD
companies beget a vested passion on this no longer working. In the occasion that they did we
would circulate to basically the most price efficient customary resolution.

The 3D mannequin can no longer be outdated because the segment

There would possibly maybe maybe additionally additionally be substantial issues with the 3D mannequin.

Rotten 3D CAD Parts

Can the 3D Mannequin Be Ancient because the Method Authority?

2. Extra Worth
High-quality and Productive Utility

There are only a couple of programs that beget the parts, assemblies and drawings
in one file.

Could Boeing circulate aid to at least one of those programs?

In actual fact that it would possibly maybe well probably maybe be better than persevering with the course they’re
on with Catia 5.

Yes, you would gentle wish to work with Catia 4 and Catia 5 parts. But
these programs be taught and write each Catia 4 and 5 native facts.

ZW3D is the resolution that would possibly maybe maybe match this bill. It’s historical previous basically based fully mostly and
would need a extraordinarily short studying curve. I enact wish to showcase IronCad as
a supporting invent package. Its stage of 3D right modeling productiveness can no longer be

The Single mannequin atmosphere likelihood

Right here is by far the finest invent atmosphere. You invent your
assemblies in one file. Right here’s a must for conceptual invent, no want
for PDM within the invent stage. Enables all parts to be in one file unless
the time for engineering liberate.

3D CAD Single Mannequin Method Atmosphere

The Integrated Drawing

Right here is the put the door is closed on the records administration scenario. Your
drawing is segment of your segment or assembly file. You would possibly maybe maybe maybe enact assemblies and
liberate your complete segment out of a single file. Mediate how that would possibly maybe maybe
solve the inner PDM, The distinctiveness of the associated records
document (drawing) is the ultimate part blocking complete CAD
interoperablity. It’d be fleshy if we would possibly maybe maybe additionally invent a extinct for the
drawings as when put next to the 3D mannequin. Being in a situation to export each the mannequin
and the drawing in an associated structure.

Integrated State Edit Functionality

Integrated tell edit performance permits
tell enhancing to be segment of the invent route of offering unbelievable
flexibility. Now want for intensive invent intent when initiating a segment.
Purposeful tell edit opens the selection to work with any other CAD
programs right objects.

Hybrid 3D Modeling

Right here is the put all 3D CAD programs are attempting to hurry. Sadly, they wish to
undoubtedly be designed as hybrid modelers from the bottom up. Clumsy add-on
modules obtained’t ever provide the gentle integrated operation, when put next to
programs love ZW3D Fashioned.

ZW3D CATIA 5 Replacement Succor

ZW3D can import the PMI of the Catia 5 file. Then blueprint a document
inner the file. It’ll additionally import/export Catia 4 and 5 facts.

Free PMI Importer?

I’m a Boeing trained draftsman with 53 years
of trip, and I deem
from what I in actual fact beget considered the minimized PMI is no longer any longer ample as a structure
for engineering documentation.

I gentle deem an fully detailed AID (drawing)
is required. If no longer for a complete unambiguous description to
manufacturing, then a second take a look at by the vogue designer for errors or a
better invent. An extraordinarily outlined associated records document
(drawing) equipped in a PDF structure is additionally stunning for easy overview and
checking. The shortage of those capabilities is in conjunction with to the price of
engineering in errors and slipped schedules. In my very own engineering, when
I part the parts, I continuously get an error. That is with a protracted time of
create, match and characteristic invent and drafting trip.


It’s time for a disruption no longer handiest with Boeing and its relationship
with Catia 5 however the full industries relationship with any of those
Legitimate/e Clones which can additionally very successfully be stealing our precious engineering time.

is no longer any longer the ultimate culprit on this crime.

As I stated first and main put we came grade by grade because the scenario
arose. But it undoubtedly is time to reevaluate this day’s 3D CAD solutions.

PTC with Legitimate/e (Creo) offered a promise of associated parametric invent.
Sadly, that promise used to be never established. The efforts to put into effect it has
added hours to the engineering invent and transport route of. With PLM,
they tried to elongate the misplaced productiveness with some very costly

Evan Yares describes the scenario of parametric
invent very clearly on this text which is first of a series centered
on this scenario.

The failed promise of parametric CAD

It’s attention-grabbing that the smaller companies are
very productive with 3D CAD in conjunction with TECH-NET. Their engineering
deliverable is the mannequin and an intensive drawing within the create of a PDF. I
impart no longer having an Infotech crew retains issues relatively easy.

Engineering didn’t want computers. We designed the 747 or 767 with out
them and in less time than they did the 787.

3D CAD and the 757

We want to put a extinct, equal to what
we had within the previous.

It’s time to put engineering aid to blame of

I undoubtedly wish to
record you all, designing parts and the maintenance of those parts is a
moderately easy route of. You invent the parts, bring complete and
unambiguous documentation to manufacturing, spend transport of the parts
and assemble. Then archive the engineering documentation confidently never
to be considered again.

It undoubtedly is no longer any longer rocket science!

Piece Method Outlined

The Assembly Outlined

Shouldn’t the implications of the computerization of
engineering be a extra simplified route of and unbelievable productiveness
will increase?

Hobble ahead!! Try to acknowledge to that take a look at!!

TECH-NET Engineering Companies and products!

We promote and enhance IronCAD
and ZW3D Products and
engineering companies and products within the route of the United States and Canada!

Why TECH-NET Sells IronCAD and ZW3D

For added
records or to acquire IronCAD or ZW3D

With 53
years of
17 years
as a
33 years
in 3D
gross sales,
companies and products,
now we beget a
stage of
this day’s
3D CAD engineering
For many
it is in
Whenever you
or stunning
on this
undoubtedly feel
free to
name and
we can
are so
extra efficient
put you
time and

My First 17 Years or “How did we enact it with out
3D CAD!”


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“Simplicity, patience, compassion.
These three are your greatest treasures.
Simple in actions and thoughts, you return to the source of being.
Patient with both friends and enemies,
you accord with the way things are.
Compassionate toward yourself,
you reconcile all beings in the world.”
― Lao Tzu, Tao Te Ching

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