Antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy resolves long covid in 24 patients

Antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy resolves long covid in 24 patients

This is study of microclots in long-COVID patients, including treatment thereof, and a data-driven correlation of comorbidities with long-COVID symptoms.

This is a corrected version. The preprint original is also at:

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Combined triple treatment of brin amyloid


microclots and platelet pathology in individuals with

Long COVID/ Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19

(PASC) can resolve their persistent symptoms

Etheresia Pretorius ( )

Stellenbosch University

Chantelle Venter

Stellenbosch University

Gert Jacobus Laubscher

Mediclinic Stellenbosch

Maritha J. Kotze

Stellenbosch University

Kelebogile Moremi

Stellenbosch University

Sunday Oladejo

Stellenbosch University

Liam R. Watson

Stellenbosch University

Kanshu Rajaratnam

Stellenbosch University

Bruce W. Watson

Stellenbosch University

Douglas B. Kell

University of Liverpool


Keywords: Long COVID/PASC, Symptoms, Co-morbidities, Amyloid Fibrin(ogen), Hyperactivated platelets

Posted Date: December 28th, 2021


License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 

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Combined triple treatment of fibrin amyloid microclots and platelet

pathology in individuals with Long COVID/ Post-Acute Sequelae of

COVID-19 (PASC) can resolve their persistent symptoms

Etheresia Pretorius1*, Chantelle Venter1, Gert Jacobus Laubscher2, Maritha J Kotze3,4

Kelebogile Moremi4, Sunday Oladejo5, Liam R. Watson5, Kanshu Rajaratnam5, Bruce W.

Watson5, Douglas B. Kell1,6,7*

1Department of Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Stellenbosch University,

Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1 Matieland, 7602, South Africa;

2Mediclinic Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa

3 Division of Chemical Pathology, Department of Pathology, National Health Laboratory

Service, Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town 8000, South Africa.

4 Division of Chemical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health

Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town 8000, South Africa.

5Centre for AI Research, School for Data-Science & Computational Thinking, Stellenbosch

University, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa

6Department of Biochemistry and Systems Biology, Institute of Systems, Molecular and

Integrative Biology, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, University of Liverpool, L69 7ZB, UK.

7The Novo Nordisk Foundation Centre for Biosustainability, Technical University of Denmark,

Kemitorvet 200, 2800 Kgs Lyngby, Denmark.

*Corresponding authors:

*Etheresia Pretorius

Department of Physiological Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1 Matieland,


ORCID: 0000-0002-9108-2384

*Douglas B. Kell

Department of Biochemistry and Systems Biology, Institute of Systems, Molecular and

Integrative Biology, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, University of Liverpool, L69 7ZB, UK.

The Novo Nordisk Foundation Centre for Biosustainability, Technical University of Denmark,

Kemitorvet 200, 2800 Kgs Lyngby, Denmark.

ORCID: 0000-0001-5838-7963


We recognise that fibrin(ogen) amyloid microclots and platelet hyperactivation, that we have

previously observed in COVID-19 and Long COVID/Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC)

patients, might form a suitable set of foci for the clinical treatment of the symptoms of long

COVID/PASC. We first report on the comorbidities and symptoms found in a cohort of 845

South African Long COVID/PASC patients who filled in the South African Long COVID/PASC

registry, of which hypertension and high cholesterol levels (dyslipidaemia) were the most

important comorbidities. The gender balance (70% female) and the most commonly reported

Long COVID/PASC symptoms (fatigue, brain fog, loss of concentration and forgetfulness,

shortness of breath, as well as joint and muscle pains) were comparable to those reported

elsewhere. This suggests that our sample was not at all atypical. Using a previously published

scoring system for fibrin amyloid microclots and platelet pathology, we analysed blood

samples from 70 patients, and report the presence of significant fibrin amyloid microclots and

platelet pathology in all cases; these were associated with Long COVID/PASC symptoms that

persisted after the recovery from acute COVID-19. A subset of 24 patients was treated with

one month of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) (Clopidogrel 75mg/Aspirin 75mg) once a day,

as well as a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) (Apixiban) 5 mg twice a day. A proton pump

inhibitor (PPI) pantoprazole 40 mg/day was also prescribed for gastric protection. Such a

regime must only be followed under strict and qualified medical guidance to obviate any

dangers, especially haemorrhagic bleeding, and of the therapy as a whole.

Thromboelastography (TEG®) was used to assist in determining their clotting status. Each of

the 24 treated cases reported that their main symptoms were resolved and fatigue as the main

symptom was relieved, and this was also reflected in a decrease of both the fibrin amyloid

microclots and platelet pathology scores. Nine patients were genotyped for genetic variation

in homocysteine metabolism implicated in hypertension, a common COVID-19 co-morbidity

reported in both patients found to be homozygous for the risk-associated MTHFR 677 T-allele.

Fibrin amyloid microclots that block capillaries and inhibit the transport of O2 to tissues,

accompanied by platelet hyperactivation, provide a ready explanation for the symptoms of

Long COVID/PASC. The removal and reversal of these underlying epitheliopathies underlying

this provide an important treatment option that seems to be highly efficacious, and warrants

controlled clinical studies.


Long COVID/PASC; Symptoms, Co-morbidities, Amyloid Fibrin(ogen); Hyperactivated



As many of 30% of COVID-19 patients infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome

coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) continue, and in some cases begin, to suffer a variety of

debilitating symptoms weeks or months after the acute phase of infection. The precise

definition of this Long COVID/ Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) (here referred to as

Long COVID/PASC) is rather unclear and in some instances even vague. This is because

most pathophysiological mechanisms have not yet been fully identified, and many different

symptoms have been reported. The most frequently reported symptoms persist for as much

as 6 months or longer after acute infection 1. COVID-19 survivors complain of recurring fatigue

or muscle weakness, being out of breath, sleep difficulties, and suffer from anxiety or

depression 2. Symptoms noted in Long COVID/PASC patients show numerous similarities to

those seen in chronic illnesses, including Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue

Syndrome (ME/CFS) 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome 9 and Mast Cell

Activation Syndrome 1, 10. In a large global study, a survey of 3,762 Long COVID/PASC

patients from 56 countries found that nearly half still could not work full-time six months post

infection, due mainly to fatigue, post-exertional malaise, and cognitive dysfunction 11.

An important component of severe COVID-19 disease is virus-induced endothelialitis. This

leads to disruption of normal endothelial function, initiating a state of failing normal clotting

physiology. Massively increased levels of von Willebrand Factor (VWF) lead to overwhelming

platelet activation, as well as activation of the enzymatic (intrinsic) clotting pathway. We have

previously found persistent circulating fibrin amyloid microclots, that are resistant to

fibrinolysis, in samples from acute COVID-19 patients 12, 13. Endothelial, microclot and platelet

pathologies are also present in Long COVID/PASC patients 14. In a recent study we identified

numerous dysregulated molecules in circulation that might cause or reflect the lingering

symptoms for those individuals with Long COVID/PASC 14. We used proteomics to study the

proteins present in both digested supernatant and trapped persistent pellet deposits (after

protein digestion via trypsin). Dysregulated molecules include the acute phase inflammatory

molecule Serum Amyloid A (SAA) and α(2)-antiplasmin (α2AP). We had previously discovered

that in many chronic diseases fibrinogen can clot into an amyloid form that is resistant to

fibrinolysis, and that these fibrin amyloid (micro)clots could be detected with a fluorogenic

amyloid stain 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 . Thus, we also used fluorescence microscopy to report

large amyloid microclots and hyperactivated platelets present in blood samples from Long

COVID/PASC; we also showed that these deposits are highly resistant to fibrinolysis 14, 23. The

plasmin-antiplasmin system plays a key role in blood coagulation and fibrinolysis 24. Plasmin

and α2AP are primarily responsible for a controlled and regulated dissolution of the fibrin

polymers into soluble fragments such as D-dimer 24, 25. We also developed a platelet and

microclot grading system to classify platelet and microclot pathology 26. The grading system

should ideally be applied as part of a multi-pronged approach, which in addition to appropriate

anticoagulation, may also include antiviral treatment to limit cell entry of SARS-CoV2.

Differentiation of platelet and microclot pathology due to Long COVID/PASC from

cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, hypercholesterolemia or diabetes as the main

co-morbidities associated with SARS CoV2 infection, is important in our search for ways to

influence the underlying pathogenesis prophylactically. We recently used a pathology-

supported genetic testing approach (Kotze et al., 2013), for interpretative commenting on the

potential clinical relevance of the cholesterol-raising apolipoprotein (APOE) e4 allele

associated with COVID-19 infection and severity 27. Other pathophysiological mechanisms

involving at least 20 metabolites may be involved, including a possible genetic link between

the development of Long COVID/PASC and homocysteine metabolism 28. However, genetic

variation may be difficult to interpret, where the presence of several other genetic

abnormalities may be needed to have phenotypic expression. In the next paragraph, we

consider genetic variation in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolic acid reductase (MTHFR) gene

in the one-carbon-homocysteine pathway as a diagnostic, and conceivably an actionable

target, in the life-threatening course of COVID-19 29.

Homozygosity for the MTHFR 677C>T (rs1801133) variant or compound heterozygosity with

1298A>C (rs1801131) is the most common genetic cause of high homocysteine previously

studied in COVID-19 patients 30. The cut-off value of homocysteine to predict progression of

pathological findings in chest CT-imaging of COVID-19 patients was 10.58 µmol/L, compared

to the usual definition of high values above 15 µmol/L 31. This is in line with the effect on

platelet activation and the enzymatic clotting pathway 32. MTHFR enzyme function remains

largely preserved when dietary folate intake is sufficient and therefore supplementation with

B vitamins is suggested here. In patients with an unhealthy lifestyle, e.g. patients with high

body mass index (BMI) 33 , reduced enzyme activity leads to accumulation of homocysteine

34). 35 highlighted the need for prospective intervention studies involving homocysteine as a

marker of inflammation that could be targeted to prevent endothelial damage and vascular

comorbidities. The value of a personalized approach based on randomized trials as previously

conducted in hypertensive patients pre-screened for genetic variation in the MTHFR gene 36

warrants further studies to elucidate the potential role of homocysteine accumulation in Long


Many of the Long COVID/PASC symptoms that have been reported are related to symptoms

that are cardio-pulmonary in nature. In this work we present results from a cohort of 845

patients who completed an online South African Long COVID/PASC registry. In parallel, blood

samples of 70 patients who visited the clinical practice of our clinical co-author were collected

to report on the presence of microclots and platelet pathology associated with persistent

symptoms after recovery from acute COVID-19. Before contracting acute COVID-19, these

patients did not suffer from fatigue and other symptoms that they subsequently reported, and

which are typically associated with Long COVID/PASC. Thus, they were diagnosed as having

Long COVID/PASC by means of eliminating all other common diseases, including heart

failure. After diagnosis, 24 patients were treated according to the presence of microclots and

platelet pathology, and patient feedback obtained before and after treatment. These patients

experienced significant improvement, and even a return to their health at levels similar to those

before acute COVID-19. We also report genetic results in nine patients based on the

knowledge that oxidative stress and platelet activation may partly be caused by the deleterious

effect of folate deficiency on MTHFR activity and homocysteine levels 32. We conclude that

treatments focused on the elimination of these fibrin amyloid microclots and of platelet

hyperactivation, and where genetics or lifestyle dictates the additional use of folate/B

vitamin supplements, can provide a solution to the symptoms of long COVID, and that in

consequence the amyloid microclots should be seen as largely responsible for them.


Ethical clearance

Ethical clearance for the study was obtained from the Health Research Ethics Committee

(HREC) of Stellenbosch University (South Africa) (references: B21/03/001_COVID-19, project

ID: 21911 and N19/03/043, project ID 9521). Informed consent for generic studies and for

collecting data from patients who completed the South Africa Long COVID/PASC registry

online. For the volunteers who provided blood samples, the experimental objectives, risks,

and details were explained to volunteers and informed consent were obtained prior to blood

collection. Strict compliance to ethical guidelines and principles of the Declaration of Helsinki,

South African Guidelines for Good Clinical Practice, and Medical Research Council Ethical

Guidelines for Research were kept for the duration of the study and for all research protocols.

The layout the study design is shown in Figure 1.

Data collection and analysis of patients who filled in the South African Long

COVID/PASC registry

The South African Long COVID/PASC registry is an online platform where patients can report

long COVID/PASC symptoms and previous comorbidities. Data were analysed for risk factors

associated with developing Long COVID/PASC. All data were anonymised. The statistical

analysis of the South African Long COVID registry data was carried out in a Jupyter notebook

environment 37 and the Pandas library 38 was employed for data manipulation and statistical

analysis. With the aid of an interactive python data library, Plotly (, visualisation

of the statistical analysis was effected using Sankey plots.

We have also used lattices (a technique based in knowledge representation and artificial

intelligence) to visually represent the data. Lattices for exploratory data-science and artificial

intelligence are less common than other techniques, but often yield different insights and paths

for further exploration 39. An introduction to lattices in exploratory data-science is given in 40

among others. The “conexp” software package (freely available from

was used for preparing the lattices in this paper. The data of the 845 participants in the cohort

were condensed into a single matrix mapping comorbidities to symptoms, in preparation for

drawing the lattices. The input was a comma-separated values (CSV) file containing one

patient per row, with entries of 0 or 1 (absence or presence) in columns, where the

comorbidities and symptoms appear as individual columns. First, the percentage prevalence

for each symptom was calculated by traversing all rows; this was subsequently used as a

threshold vector. Next, for each comorbidity, the comorbidity-implied percentage prevalence

was calculated for each symptom, giving a matrix of comorbidity (rows) versus symptoms

(columns) and percentage entries. Finally, in order to draw easily visualised lattices with 0 and

1 entries, this last matrix was normalised based on the initially calculated threshold vector.

Blood sample collection from the cohort of 70 patients

Blood was drawn from 70 patients (33 females and 37 males; (mean/SD age 51±17). Either a

qualified phlebotomist or medical practitioner drew citrated blood into sample tubes (BD

Vacutainer®, 369714), via venepuncture, adhering to standard sterile protocol. Whole blood

(WB) was centrifuged at 3000xg for 15 minutes at room temperature and the supernatant

platelet poor plasma (PPP) samples were collected and stored in 1.5mL Eppendorf tubes at –

80ºC, until the analysis was performed. Haematocrit samples were analysed on the day of


Long COVID/PASC diagnosis

Patients gave consent to study their blood samples, following clinical examination and/or after

filling in the South African Long COVID/PASC registry. Symptoms must have been new and

persistent symptoms noted after acute COVID-19. Initial patient diagnosis was the end result

of exclusions, only after all other pathologies had been excluded. This was done by taking a

history of previous symptoms (before and after acute COVID-19 infection), clinical

examinations, and investigations including: full blood counts; N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic

peptide (NTproBNP) levels (if raised it suggests cardiac damage); thyroid-stimulating

hormone (TSH); C-reactive protein levels; the ratio between the concentrations of the

enzymes aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase (AST/ALT ratio) and

electrocardiogram (ECG) +/– stress testing. If the mentioned tests were in the normal ranges,

the lingering symptoms that can be ascribed to Long COVID/PASC were then assessed and

included shortness of breath; recurring chest pain; lingering low oxygen levels; heart rate

dysfunction (heart palpitations); constant fatigue (more than usual); joint and muscle pain;

brain fog; lack of concentration; forgetfulness; sleep disturbances and digestive and kidney

problems. These symptoms should have been persistent and new symptoms that were not

present before acute COVID-19 infection and persistent for at least two months after recovery

from acute (infective) COVID-19.

Patient treatment of a sub-group

We also studied samples from a subgroup of 24 Long COVID/PASC patients before and after

treatment. Clinical assessment identified Long COVID/PASC patients (as described above)

that might also have coagulation and platelet pathologies. Because of the very wide variety of

symptoms that may be present in Long COVID/PASC, a thorough clinical history and

examination is required, supplemented by the appropriate specialized investigations/blood

work. Caution should be used in deciding on the most cost-effective way to go about doing

these tests seeing that most are virtually always normal in Long COVID/PASC patients. This

may create the false impression that the patient has no organic disease process present.

Platelet and microclot analysis were also performed on these samples. Best clinical practice

methods” were followed and hypercoagulation pathologies were treated using anticoagulation

medication. Patients were informed that this is not yet standard treatment for Long

COVID/PASC. Blood samples from patients were analysed before and after treatment, and

thromboelastography (TEG®) was used to assist in determining the clotting status of the

patients, to ensure that hypocoagulation or a likelihood of bleeding was not being induced 26,

41. Once a diagnosis of Long COVID/PASC was confirmed, and microclots and platelet

pathology were noted using fluorescence microscopy (see below), the patients were treated

with one month of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) (Clopidogrel 75mg/Aspirin 75mg) once a

day before breakfast, as well as direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) (Apixiban 5 mg twice a

day (bd) (therapeutic dose). A proton pump inhibitor (PPI) e.g. pantoprazole 40 mg/day taken

orally half an hour before main meal was added to this for gastric protection. After one month

the blood analysis was repeated and together with symptomatology will indicate if further

treatment is needed or not. Patients completed a checklist of symptoms, before and after

treatment regimes. Anticoagulation is not needed on a long-term basis (unless there is an

underlying alternative indication). Once platelet activation and microclot formation returns to

normal, indicating endothelial recovery, anticoagulation is stopped. The body is then able to

return to managing normal clotting/physiology.

Platelet pathology

Haematocrit samples of all 70 patients in the cohort were exposed to the two fluorescent

markers, CD62P (PE-conjugated) (platelet surface P-selectin) (IM1759U, Beckman Coulter,

Brea, CA, USA) and PAC-1 (FITC-conjugated) (340507, BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA,

USA). CD62P is a marker for P-selectin that is either on the membrane of platelets or found

inside them 13, 42. PAC-1 identifies platelets through marking the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (gpIIb/IIIa)

on the platelet membrane. To study platelet pathology, 4µL CD62P and 4µL PAC-1 was added

to 20µL haematocrit, followed by incubation for 30 minutes (protected from light) at room

temperature. The excitation wavelength band for PAC-1 was set at 450 to 488nm and the

emission at 499 to 529nm and for the CD62P marker it was 540nm to 570nm and the emission

577nm to 607nm. Samples were viewed using a Zeiss Axio Observer 7 fluorescent

microscope with a Plan-Apochromat 63x/1.4 Oil DIC M27 objective (Carl Zeiss Microscopy,

Munich, Germany).

Platelet poor plasma (PPP) and the detection of amyloid (fibrin(ogen) protein and anomalous


Microclot formation in PPP samples from all 70 treatment-naïve Long COVID/PASC patients

and the 24 patients in the treatment sub-group, after treatment were analysed. PPP were

exposed to the fluorescent amyloid dye, Thioflavin T (ThT) (final concentration: 0,005mM)

(Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) for 30 minutes (protected from light) at room temperature

18, 19, 20, 21. After incubation, 3uL PPP was placed on a glass slide and covered with a coverslip.

The excitation wavelength band for ThT was set at 450nm to 488nm and the emission at

499nm to 529nm and processed samples were viewed using a Zeiss Axio Observer 7

fluorescent microscope with a Plan-Apochromat 63x/1.4 Oil DIC M27 objective (Carl Zeiss

Microscopy, Munich, Germany) 12, 13, 23.

Genetic studies

Pathology-supported genetic testing as previously conceptualized for APOE genotyping 27

was used for assessment of clinically relevant non-communicable disease (NCD) pathways

coincident with the SARS-CoV-2 viral disease. Genomic DNA was extracted from anti-

coagulated whole blood samples using the Omega Bio-Tek E.Z.N.A® Blood DNA Mini Kit (Spin

Protocol). Genotyping of two functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the

MTHFR (rs1801133, 677C>T and rs1801131, 1298A>C) gene was performed by high

throughput real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on the Roche LightCycler® 480II

instrument, using the TaqMan® SNP Genotyping Assays (ThermoFisher Scientific). The

accuracy of the high throughput genotyping was verified against direct DNA sequencing as

the gold standard 33. For the purpose of this study, MTHFR genotyping results of nine patients

with known APOE 2/3/4 genotype were interpreted according to the matrix shown in Table 1

43, which includes a questionnaire-based assessment as previously described by 33.

Table 1: Matrix for data integration and semi-automated report generation using pathology

supported genetic testing of the coagulation pathway analysis in Long COVID patients.

Family medical history

and genetic susceptibility

Environmental factors and

treatment response

Clinical risk profile

Deep vein

thrombosis (DVT)

Pulmonary embolism

Recurrent pregnancy


DNA screening for genetic

variation in the MTHFR

gene to determine clinical

relevance based on the

personal and family medical

conditions documented


assessment of dietary folate

status and other lifestyle

factors known to interact

with the genetic variants

selected for this study

Biochemical test results*

Lipid profile


Vitamin B12*

Assessment of pathological

indicators that may reflect


interactions as biological


Monitoring of relevant

pathology/biochemical test

results in relation to

treatment response and

potential side-effect profile

Available in one case only


South African Long COVID/PASC registry

In Figures 2 to 6, the distribution of the South African Long COVID/PASC registry participant

data (845 participants) was analysed according to the patients’ gender, comorbidities, age

group, initial COVID-19 symptoms, and Long COVID/PASC symptoms, using Sankey plots.

The same participant versus comorbidity versus symptom data were further manipulated to

produce a mapping between comorbidities and symptoms, represented as a matrix with

comorbidities as rows and symptoms as columns. This was used to draw a lattice, giving

insight into the implications (simple binary implications for visualisation) from comorbidities to

symptoms. The corresponding lattices with different components highlighted, correspond to

the most prominent comorbidities emerging from the Sankey diagrams: high blood pressure,

high cholesterol, Type 2 diabetes, auto-immune disease, and previous blood clots. In the

following figures (Figures 2 to 6) , we rehearse the implications in more detail.

Figure 2 gives a general overview of the South African Long COVID/PASC registry. About

10% (i.e. 87) of the participants were not initially tested for SARS-CoV2 using a PCR test,

whereas in 90% (i.e. 758) of the patients, a COVID-19 positive test was reported. Moreover,

patients were also categorised according to gender. Thus, 70% and 30% (i.e. 593 and 252)

of the study cohort identified as female and male, respectively, in line with common

observations 44, 45 . The majority (i.e. 76%) of the participants were between ages 31-40, 41-

50, and 51-60. We observed that participants with comorbidities such as high blood pressure,

high cholesterol, type-2 diabetes, auto-immune disease, and previous blood clots were in the


Figure 3 shows the gender distribution for the participants with the Long COVID/PASC

symptoms in more detail. In a similar trend with Figure 2, the common Long COVID/PASC

symptoms were noted as constant fatigue; brain fog, loss of concentration, and forgetfulness;

shortness of breath, as well as joint and muscle pains. Interestingly, Long COVID/PASC

symptoms such as kidney problems, digestive problems, and low oxygen levels were less

commonly reported by the patients. Figure 4 shows the age versus Long COVID/PASC

symptoms distribution of the participants. We note that the majority of participants were within

the age ranges of 31-40, 41-50, and 51-60.

Figure 5 shows a Sankey plot that illustrates the population distribution of participants’

comorbidities versus Long COVID/PASC while Figures 6A and B shows representative lattice

plots of high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels, confirming in more detail the

correlations already shown in Figures 4 and 7. Reading upwards in the lattice, for example in

8A, the “high blood pressure” node connects upwards through a highlighted network to a

variety of symptoms, ranging from “digestive problems” (on the left) to “shortness of breath”

on the right. The complexity/density of the blue highlighted network represents prevalence of

the comorbidity amongst the patients, as well as implications of a variety of symptoms.

Blood analysis

We studied blood samples from 70 diagnosed Long COVID/PASC patients (age median/SD

51±17) (33 females and 37 males). Microclot and platelet analysis showed presence of

microclots and platelet pathologies in all 70 patients. We used a platelet grading system to

identify platelet pathologies, that we have developed and described previously 26 see Figure

7 and 8 and Table 2.

Table 2: Platelet activation criteria showing level of spreading, as well as clumping in the

haematocrit sample. (Taken from 26 with permission).

Activation with pseudopodia

We again used a clotting grading system that we have developed and have published on

previously 26 , see Figure 9 and Table 3. Both the scoring of the platelet pathology and PPP

microclots were combined and given a final score to determine the severity of the disease

(Table 4).

Table 3: Microclot criteria to determine the amount of microclots in the platelet poor plasma

sample. (Taken from 26 with permission).

Very few areas of plasma protein misfolding (≤1µm) visible with a few ≤10µm


Very few areas of plasma protein misfolding (≤1µm) visible with scattered/mild

≤10µm microclots

Moderate areas of plasma protein misfolding visible as microclots ≥15µm

Severe areas of plasma protein misfolding visible as large microclots

Table 4: Overall microclot and platelet activation score results.

Figure 10 shows an example of platelet activation and the presence of fibrin amyloid microclots

in two of the Long Covid/PASC patients. Figure 10A to C shows representative micrographs

of a patient suffering from Long COVID/PASC for 11 months, where Figure 10C shows a tile

scan of cellular debris present in the haematocrit. Figure 10D and E shows representative

microclots and platelets where the patients have been using Aspirin only, before sample

collection. As anticipated, significant microclot formation were still seen, but platelets were not

significantly activated.

We also followed a sub-population of 24 patients through an anticoagulation regime, and nine

cases were also screened for the MTHFR rs1801133 (677C>T) and rs1801131 (1298A>C)

SNPs. Table 5 shows patient demographics and disease status of this sub-group of 24

patients. Table 6 shows MTHFR genotyping for the nine patients. High cholesterol and high

blood pressure were amongst the main co-morbidities that were noted in 25% and 33% of

these, respectively. However, overall this cohort was quite healthy before being diagnosed

with acute COVID-19. Their symptoms during acute COVID-19 varied from mild (33.3%)

medium (33.3%) to severe (33.3%) and 33% were hospitalized, but no-one was ventilated.

Shortness of breath (70.8%), constant fatigue (87.5%) and brain fog, concentration and

forgetfulness (83.3%), were the main long COVID/PASC symptoms that were reported. After

treatment, every one of the 24 patients reported that their main symptoms were resolved and

fatigue as main symptom, relieved. Their platelets were also calmed and microclotting scores

were within healthy levels (see clotting and grading system).

Using the platelet mapping and plasma criteria 26 the patients displayed moderate platelet

spreading and mild platelet clumping (white arrows) before treatment (Figure 11 A, C, E, G, I)

with a reduction in platelet activity after treatment with mild spreading and no clumping (Figure

11 B, D, F, H, J). In the plasma samples a difference could be seen before and after treatment,

with moderate plasma microclots (white arrows) found in the before treatment patients (Figure

12 A, C, E, G, I) and a small number of microclots present in the plasma after treatment (Figure

12 B, D, F, H, J). Similar platelet hyperactivation and plasma clotting were seen in acute

COVID-19 and Long COVID/PASC patients in previous studies done on naïve COVID-19 and

Long COVID/PASC samples 12, 13.

Table 5: Patient demographics and disease status of 24 Long COVID/PASC patients before and after


Demographics of sub-group of 24 Long COVID/PASC patients

Auto-immune disease not listed

Gingivitis and/or Periodontitis

Acute COVID-19 data of cohort of 24 treated Long COVID/PASC patients

Acute phase disease severity

Severity of acute COVID-19 or Long COVID

Hospitalization during acute COVID-19

Heart rate dysfunction (heart palpitations)

Constant fatigue (more than usual)

Brain fog, concentration, forgetfulness

Sleep disturbances (more than before COVID-19)

Depression, anxiety (more than before COVID-19)

Did your main symptoms listed above resolve?

Platelet activation and clumping score

Overall score for platelets and plasma micrographs

based on platelet and microclot scoring system

Table 6 shows the clinical characteristics and MTHFR genotypes of nine Long COVID/PASC

patients, of whom eight (89%) tested positive for at least one risk-associated allele.

Homozygosity for the MTHFR 677 T-allele associated with the most severe effect on enzyme

function was detected in two of the three patients with hypertension reported as a co-morbidity,

prior to the diagnosis of Long COVID/PASC. In the majority of patients folate intake was

inadequate, considered to be low when the score is less than 11, moderate between 11 and

13, and high above 13 (see Table 6). The negative effect of a low folate score was evaluated

in relation to body mass index (BMI), as an indication of being overweight (>24.9 kg/m2) or

obese (>30 kg/m2). Detection of the APOE polymorphism (data not shown) and/or a high BMI

are known risk factors for development of dyslipidaemia frequently detected in our study

cohort. A family history of DVTs was reported by both patients with this condition prior to their

diagnosis of Long COVID/PASC, which warrants extended genetic testing to confirm or

exclude a more severe genetic cause of inherited thrombophilia.

Table 6: Clinical characteristics and MTHFR genotyping results of nine Long COVID/PASC

patients. Folate score should be evaluated in relation to body mass index. Ages were not

added to assist with de-identification: age range was from 40 60.

Deep vein thrombosis


677 C > T (+-)

1298 A > C (+-)



Deep vein thrombosis


*Prior to the diagnosis of Long COVID/PASC +- heterozygous and ++ homozygous


Here we report on the comorbidities and symptoms identified in a cohort of 845 South African

Long COVID/PASC patients who filled in the South African Long COVID/PASC registry. We

show that hypertension and high cholesterol levels (dyslipidemia) are important comorbidities

that may play a significant role in the development of Long COVID/PASC in this cohort. (We

also recognise that other comorbidities, such as previous viral infections, are also very

important, but may only manifest only in a larger cohort.) It is well-documented that impaired

endothelial function is associated with increased cholesterol and hypertension (which may be

underpinned by generic variation) due to increased vascular oxidative stress and inflammation

46, 47. Here we also showed the presence of fibrin amyloid microclotting and platelet

pathologies in another cohort of 70 patients that visited a clinical practice complaining of

persistent symptoms, where these patients were diagnosed with Long COVID/PASC. We

found that in this cohort, all of the patients did indeed have both increased amyloid

microclotting, as well as platelet pathologies, as assessed by a platelet and clotting grading

system that we have developed previously 26. In addition, we followed 24 of these patients

through their anticoagulation treatment regimens and demonstrated sufficient endothelium

recovery over a three to four week period to lower their microclot and platelet scores by almost

two full units (7.1 5.2). While this approach may not yet be widely accepted, it is based on

best clinical practice and GJL’s experience in managing affected patients. We included a minor

genetic component to determine the prevalence of two extensively studied MTHFR SNPs in 9

of the 24 patients. Detection of genetic variation in this MTHFR gene in the presence of

clinically relevant biochemical findings may therefore also facilitate risk stratification for

improved personalized patient management 48.

Normal blood clotting goes through a variety of established mechanisms 42, a major step being

the cleavage by thrombin of the complex fibrinogen molecule (roughly cylindrical, with a 5 x

45nm size). This releases two fibrinopeptides, and causes the thermodynamically favourable

formation of fibrin macrofibres, typically 50-100nm in diameter. They may be crosslinked by

Factor XIII. The clots are usually removed by fibrinolysis, leading to the residual formation of

D-dimer; its normally low background levels reflect this background activity. It was always

assumed that the normal conformation of a protein is that of its lowest free energy, as per

Christian Anfinsen’s famous protein refolding experiments. However, this is not the case.

Many proteins can fold into a form of lower free energy but retain the identical sequence. Some

of these forms, containing ordered beta-sheet structures, are generically referred to as

amyloids, and many are well known to be associated with certain diseases. Ab in Alzheimer’s

disease and synuclein in Parkinson’s disease are examples. Over 50 are recognised 18. Note

however that almost any proteins can form amyloid structures (e.g. recombinant insulin will do

it over time, as will lysozyme held at an acid pH). Another well-known example of a class of

proteins that can exist in two conformations of identical sequence is represented by prion

proteins. The normal form with alpha-helices is called PrPc and the amyloid one PrPSc, the

latter being of lower free energy i.e. more thermodynamically stable. It is also highly resistant

to proteolysis. This transition between the two forms can itself be catalysed by the PrPSc. The

key point of importance in microclot formation in Long COVID/PASC is that fibrin(ogen) too

can, in the presence of various trigger substances, fold into an amyloid form that has a very

different macrostructure characterised by different fibre diameters and pore sizes 49. We noted

that e.g. in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) clots have a netlike appearance 50, 51, 52, 53 while

in Alzheimer’s disease 16, 54, 55, 56 and Parkinson’s disease the fibres may be larger in size 15,

22; they are also much more resistant to proteolysis 17, and so are much more prevalent in the

steady state.

We have been observing fibrin(ogen) changes generally for many years, initially via electron

microscopy (e.g. 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, and many others). Since 2011 we have also studied the effect

of fibrin(ogen) folding in the presence of various inflammatory molecules, such as iron ions 63,

that can stimulate the anomalous fibrin form 64. These anomalous structures could also be

found in a variety of disease states 17, such as T2DM 51 and Alzheimer’s disease 65. In this

earlier literature we often referred to these anomalous clots as ‘dense matted deposits’. In

2016, we showed that this anomalous resistance to fibrinolysis was because the anomalous

structures were in fact amyloid in nature 49. Such structures are easily observed under the

optical microscope, and in particular may be stained with the fluorogenic dye thioflavin T and

by the more recently developed oligothiophene dyes marketed by Ebba Biotech as

Amytrackers 15, 19, 21.

Most recently, we have demonstrated this explicitly in COVID-19 patients 12, 13. Here, these

microclots were observed without the addition of clotting agents, i.e. thrombin, and therefore,

these amyloid microclots were there in the plasma of the individuals at the time of sampling.

In particular, it was found not only that the clots contained fibrin (fibrinogen after all being one

of the most concentrated proteins in plasma) but that these microclots had entrapped many

other proteins such as alpha-2-antiplasmin 14 and a variety of other proteins and even

antibodies, which therefore were not observed in plasma from which the microclots had been

removed (so did not appear as biomarkers, even though they were there). Because these

clots are insoluble and effectively inert they do not contribute to plasma viscosity as

determined via TEG®, whose values can thus appear normal in Long COVID/PASC

(unpublished data). Another characteristic of COVID-19 is the extremely high levels of

activation of platelets 13. Together with platelet pathology and the presence of microclots in

the circulation, endothelial damage may be key drivers of persistent Long COVID/PASC

symptoms 14. See Figure 13 for a snapshot of the interactions that platelets have with

circulating blood cells and the various complexes they form (for a detailed review, see 66.

The intention of the treatment regime used in this study was to use best clinical practice

methods to return the patient’s clotting pathology to that of a normal clotting physiology and

not to make them hypo-coagulable. It is well-known that DOACs act upon various parts of the

clotting pathways 67, while platelet hyperactivation is prevented with DAPT 68, 69 This ‘triple

therapy’ treatment therefore prevents platelet hyperactivation and also prevents new

microclots from forming, while it allows the body’s own fibrinolysis pathways to clear existing

microclots. Figure 14 shows the various routes of action of the medication targeting the

enzymatic pathway and platelet hyperactivation 67, 68, 69. See Figure 15 for a concluding visual

on our understanding of the most relevant physiological processes.


In the current study, it was noted that each of 70 patients diagnosed with Long COVID/PASC

and who provided blood samples showed platelet hyperactivation and microclot formation.

We used a triple therapy to treat both the microclots and the platelet hyperactivation. During

this medication regime, where 24 patients were followed, the endothelium layers recover

sufficiently over a three-to-four week period, and this allows for a normal clotting physiology

and endothelium function to return. In the treated cohort, significant microclots were removed

and platelet hyperactivation returned to more normal levels. All patients in this cohort, reported

a significant reduction in their Long COVID/PASC symptoms. We suggest that a platelet and

clotting grading system should be used as a simple and cost-effective diagnostic method for

the early identification of long COVID/PASC. Diagnosis of Long COVID/PASC requires a

diagnosis that excludes other pathologies, including using the duration of symptoms (>two

months after acute infection). If a bleeding tendency (not seen commonly) is a concern, a

TEG® can be used to manage that, its role being as a safety-net to not overtreat the patient.

The exact combination of treatment and duration for mild cases probably needs further

investigation and refinement. Patients need to be informed that the above approach and

treatment is not yet widely accepted but is based on best clinical practice and experience in

managing these patients.

Our literature study on the effect of homocysteine on platelet and clotting pathway activation

underpinned by variation in the MTHFR gene is relevant to the COVID-19 era. Ponti and co-

workers in 2021 70, correlated infection patterns with the MTHFR 677 T-allele frequency which

could relate to studies we performed previously in different ethnic groups in South Africa 71 .

We also provided convincing evidence that homocysteine levels are mediated by the effects

of MTHFR 677 C > T and the diet on BMI, which increases with a low folate score 33, 72. There

a low folate score correlates with a high BMI. Detection of this low-penetrance variation

therefore reinforces the importance of high intake of folate and other B-vitamins in the diet to

prevent or restore dysfunction of the methylation pathway. There are no controlled trials done

yet; however, this will be the important next steps to urgently consider in relation to clinical

monitoring using a multi-modal pathology-supported genetic testing approach 27.


Figure 1: Study layout of the current paper.

Figure 2: General Overview of the population distribution of the South African Long

COVID/PASC registry data as presented in a Sankey plot.

Figure 3: Gender versus Long COVID symptoms population distribution of the South African

Long COVID registry data.

Figure 4: Age Long COVID/PASC symptoms participant distribution of the South African

Long COVID/PASC registry data.

FIGURE 5: A Sankey plot showing participants comorbidities versus Long COVID/PASC

symptoms population distribution of the South African Long COVID registry data.

Figure 6A and B: Lattice plots, showing participants comorbidities versus Long COVID/PASC

symptoms lattice, highlighting the high blood pressure and high cholesterol comorbidities.

Figure 7: Fluorescence microscopy examples of the different stages of platelet activation and

spreading, that was used to score the platelet activation in the Long COVID patients, with Stage 1, with

minimally activated platelets, seen as small round platelets with a few pseudopodia, seen as

healthy/control platelets that progresses to Stage 4, with egg-shaped platelets, indicative of spreading

and the beginning of clumping. (Taken from 26 with permission).

Figure 8: Fluorescence microscopy examples of the different stages of platelet clumping. With no

clumping occurring in the healthy/control samples in Stage 1 (no figures shown), progressing to severe

clumping of platelets as seen in Stage 4. (Taken from 26 with permission).

Figure 9: Fluorescence microscopy showing microclots in platelet poor plasma (PPP) with

representative examples of the different stages of different stages of microclot formation. Stage 1shows

minimal microclot formation in healthy/control PPP which progresses to the presence of the severe

microclotting Stage 4. Bottom row represents examples of stage 4 microclots using (A) bright-field

microscopy, (B) fluorescence microscopy, and (C) an overlay of fluorescence and bright-field

microscopy. (Taken from 26 with permission).

Figure 10: Microclots with platelets in 2 patients with Long COVID/PASC. (A): Representative

micrographs of microclots in an untreated patient diagnosed with Long COVID/PASC,

suffering from the condition for 11 months. The plasma was stained with thioflavin T (ThT);

(B) Platelet hyperactivation of the same patient, where PAC-1 and CD62PE were used to

mark platelets. (C) In this patient, cellular debris in the haematocrit was noted here such

cellular debris is shown in a tile scan. (D and E): Microclot presence and platelets from a

patient who was on anti-platelet therapy before blood collection, where significant microclots

were noted, but the platelets were not significantly hyperactivated, due to the use of anti

platelet therapy.

Figure 11: Representative fluorescence micrographs of platelet pathology before and after treatment.

Moderate platelet spreading and mild platelet clumping (white arrows) was seen in the naïve patient’s

samples (Fig. A, C, E, G, I) that improved after treatment, with mild platelet spreading and no clumps

(Fig. B, D, F, H, J).

Figure 12: Representative PPP fluorescence micrographs with moderate areas of plasma protein

misfolding forming microclots (some larger than 15µm; white arrows) before treatment (Fig. A, C, E, G,

I), with a few microclots visible in the samples after treatment (Fig. B, D, F, H, J).

Figure13: (1) After activation, platelets express P-selectin on their membranes, followed by

platelet-T cell complex formation (2); P-selectin on platelet membranes are also recognized

by macrophages, possibly by the Fcγ-receptor; clearance may result due to either receptor

binding or phagocytosis (3). CD40L is released from platelets and can migrate to membranes

or shed as soluble (s)CD40L (4). sCD40L can bind to both the αIIbβ3 or CD40 receptors (5).

The P-selectin on the membranes of sCD40L-activated platelets can also form complexes

with monocytes (6). Platelet-neutrophils also form complexes (7). Diagram created with

BioRender ( and adapted from 66.

Figure 14: Effects of selected direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) and dual antiplatelet therapy

(DAPT) medication on clotting and platelet function. Diagram created with

BioRender (

Figure 15: Understanding the pathological pathways of Long COVID/PASC. A) The

rollercoaster vascular pathology in acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19)

[adapted from 42]. B) Long COVID/PASC pathology resulting in persistent microclot formation

and platelet hypercoagulation. C) Best clinical practice regime that reduces platelet

hyperactivation and prevent microclot formation. D) Treatment should result in endothelium

healing and reduction of tissue hypoxia and reduction of long COVID/PASC symptoms Image

created with BioRender (



We wish to thank all the long COVID/PASC patients who participated in this study. Also,

Lezette Briedenhann, Ilse Geldenhuys and Anneke De Villiers who curated the patient

consents and blood collections.


DBK thanks the Novo Nordisk Foundation (grant NNF20CC0035580) for financial support.

MJK acknowledges the South African Medical Research Council for support of the genetic

studies. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to

publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Consent for publication

All authors approved submission of the paper.

Availability of data and materials

The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors,

without undue reservation. For data see:!AgoCOmY3bkKHi7Zrl0KftaiA7H35dg?e=sW8Q9L

Competing interests

MK is a non-executive director and shareholder of Gknowmix (Pty) Ltd. EP is the

managing director of BioCODE Technologies. The other authors have no competing

interests to declare.

Authors’ contributions

EP: Sample analysis, Long COVID/PASC registry curation, writing of the paper, editing the

paper, co-corresponding author Study-leader; CV: Platelet analysis and data curation; GJL:

sample collection, diagnoses and treatment of patients; MJK and KM: genetic analysis and

editing of paper; LPW, KR, BWW, SO: Long COVID/PASC registry data analysis; DBK:

Editing and writing of paper, co-corresponding author.


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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a well-known neurodegenerative disease with a strong association established with systemic inflammation. Recently, the role of the gingipain protease group from Porphyromonas gingivalis was implicated in Alzheimer’s disease and here we present evidence, using a fluorescent antibody to detect gingipain R1 (RgpA), of its presence in a PD population. To further elucidate the action of this gingipain, as well as the action of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from P. gingivalis, low concentrations of recombinant RgpA and LPS were added to purified fluorescent fibrinogen. We also substantiate previous findings regarding PD by emphasizing the presence of systemic inflammation via multiplex cytokine analysis, and demonstrate hypercoagulation using thromboelastography (TEG), confocal and electron microscopy. Biomarker analysis confirmed significantly increased levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines. In our PD and control blood analysis, our results show increased hypercoagulation, the presence of amyloid formation in plasma, and profound ultrastructural changes to platelets. Our laboratory analysis of purified fibrinogen with added RgpA, and/or LPS, showed preliminary data with regards to the actions of the protease and the bacterial membrane inflammagen on plasma proteins, to better understand the nature of established PD.

Complex associations exist between inflammation and thrombosis, with the inflammatory state tending to promote coagulation. Fibrinogen, an acute phase protein, has been shown to interact with the amyloidogenic ß-amyloid protein of Alzheimer’s disease. However, little is known about the association between fibrinogen and serum amyloid A (SAA), a highly fibrillogenic protein that is one of the most dramatically changing acute phase reactants in the circulation. To study the role of SAA in coagulation and thrombosis, in vitro experiments were performed where purified human SAA, in concentrations resembling a modest acute phase response, was added to platelet-poor plasma (PPP) and whole blood (WB), as well as purified and fluorescently labelled fibrinogen. Results from thromboelastography (TEG) suggest that SAA causes atypical coagulation with a fibrin(ogen)-mediated increase in coagulation, but a decreased platelet/fibrin(ogen) interaction. In WB scanning electron microscopy analysis, SAA mediated red blood cell (RBC) agglutination, platelet activation and clumping, but not platelet spreading. Following clot formation in PPP, the presence of SAA increased amyloid formation of fibrin(ogen) as determined both with auto-fluorescence and with fluorogenic amyloid markers, under confocal microcopy. SAA also binds to fibrinogen, as determined with a fluorescent-labelled SAA antibody and correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM). The data presented here indicate that SAA can affect coagulation by inducing amyloid formation in fibrin(ogen), as well as by propelling platelets to a more prothrombotic state. The discovery of these multiple and complex effects of SAA on coagulation invite further mechanistic analyses.

Many chronic diseases, including those classified as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, or autoimmune, are characterized by persistent inflammation. The origin of this inflammation is mostly unclear, but it is typically mediated by inflammatory biomarkers, such as cytokines, and affected by both environmental and genetic factors. Recently circulating bacterial inflammagens such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been implicated. We used a highly selective mouse monoclonal antibody to detect bacterial LPS in whole blood and/or platelet poor plasma of individuals with Parkinson’s Disease, Alzheimer’s type dementia, or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Our results showed that staining is significantly enhanced (P < 0.0001) compared to healthy controls. Aberrant blood clots in these patient groups are characterized by amyloid formation as shown by the amyloid-selective stains thioflavin T and Amytracker™ 480 or 680. Correlative Light-Electron Microscopy (CLEM) illustrated that the LPS antibody staining is located in the same places as where amyloid fibrils may be observed. These data are consistent with the Iron Dysregulation and Dormant Microbes (IDDM) hypothesis in which bacterial inflammagens such as LPS are responsible for anomalous blood clotting as part of the aetiology of these chronic inflammatory diseases.

Many studies indicate that there is a (mainly dormant) microbial component in the progressive development of Alzheimer-type dementias (ADs); and that in the case of Gram-negative organisms, a chief culprit might be the shedding of the highly inflammagenic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from their cell walls. We have recently shown that a highly sensitive assay for the presence of free LPS [added to platelet poor plasma (PPP)] lies in its ability (in healthy individuals) to induce blood to clot into an amyloid form. This may be observed in a SEM or in a confocal microscope when suitable amyloid stains (such as thioflavin T) are added. This process could be inhibited by human lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP). In the current paper, we show using scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy with amyloid markers, that PPP taken from individuals with AD exhibits considerable amyloid structure when clotting is initiated with thrombin but without added LPS. Furthermore, we could show that this amyloid structure may be reversed by the addition of very small amounts of LBP. This provides further evidence for a role of microbes and their inflammagenic cell wall products and that these products may be involved in pathological clotting in individuals with AD.

The increasingly large volumes of publicly available sensory descriptions of wine raises the question whether this source of data can be mined to extract meaningful domain-specific information about the sensory properties of wine. We introduce a novel application of formal concept lattices, in combination with traditional statistical tests, to visualise the sensory attributes of a big data set of some 7,000 Chenin blanc and Sauvignon blanc wines. Complexity was identified as an important driver of style in hereto uncharacterised Chenin blanc, and the sensory cues for specific styles were identified. This is the first study to apply these methods for the purpose of identifying styles within varietal wines. More generally, our interactive data visualisation and mining driven approach opens up new investigations towards better understanding of the complex field of sensory science.

The thrombin-induced polymerisation of fibrinogen to form fibrin is well established as a late stage of blood clotting. It is known that Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is accompanied by dysregulation in blood clotting, but it is less widely known as a coagulopathy. In recent work, we showed that the presence of tiny amounts of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in healthy individuals could cause clots to adopt an amyloid form, and this could be observed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or via the fluorescence of thioflavin-T. This could be prevented by the prior addition of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP). We had also observed by SEM this unusual clotting in the blood of patients with Parkinson’s Disease. We hypothesised, and here show, that this too can be prevented by LBP in the context of PD. This adds further evidence implicating inflammatory microbial cell wall products as an accompaniment to the disease, and may be part of its aetiology. This may lead to novel treatment strategies in PD designed to target microbes and their products.

We have previously shown that many chronic, inflammatory diseases are accompanied, and possibly partly caused or exacerbated, by various coagulopathies, manifested as anomalous clots in the form of ‘dense matted deposits’. More recently, we have shown that these clots can be amyloid in nature, and that the plasma of healthy controls can be induced to form such clots by the addition of tiny amounts of bacterial lipopolysaccharide or lipoteichoic acid. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is also accompanied by raised levels of LPS.

We use superresolution and confocal microscopies to investigate the amyloid nature of clots from healthy and T2D individuals.

We show here, with the established stain thioflavin T and the novel stains Amytracker™ 480 and 680, that the clotting of plasma from type 2 diabetics is also amyloid in nature, and that this may be prevented by the addition of suitable concentrations of LPS-binding protein.

This implies strongly that there is indeed a microbial component to the development of type 2 diabetes, and suggests that LBP might be used as treatment for it and its sequelae.

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has many cardiovascular complications, including a thrombotic propensity. Many such chronic, inflammatory diseases are accompanied (and may be exacerbated, and possibly even largely caused) by amyloid fibril formation. Recognising that there are few strong genetic associations underpinning T2D, but that amyloidogenesis of amylin is closely involved, we have been seeking to understand what might trigger the disease. Serum levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide are raised in T2D, and we recently showed that fibrin(ogen) polymerisation during blood clotting can be affected strongly by LPS. The selectivity was indicated by the regularisation of clotting by lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP). Since coagulopathies are a hallmark of T2D, we wondered whether they might too be caused by LPS (and reversed by LBP). We show here, using SEM and confocal microscopy, that platelet-poor-plasma from subjects with T2D had a much greater propensity for hypercoagulability and for amyloidogenesis, and that these could both be reversed by LBP. These data imply that coagulopathies are an important feature of T2D, and may be driven by ‘hidden’ LPS. Given the prevalence of amyloid formation in the sequelae of diabetes, this opens up novel strategies for both the prevention and treatment of T2D.

In the last 10 years, homocysteine has been regarded as a marker of cardiovascular disease and a definite risk factor for many other diseases. Homocysteine is biosynthesized from methionine through multiple steps and then goes through one of two major metabolic pathways: remethylation and transsulfuration. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a state in which too much homocysteine is present in the body. The main cause of hyperhomocysteinemia is a dysfunction of enzymes and cofactors associated with the process of homocysteine biosynthesis. Other causes include excessive methionine intake, certain diseases and side effects of some drugs. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a trigger for many diseases, such as atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, age-related macular degeneration, Alzheimer’s disease and hearing loss. There are many studies showing a positive relationship between homocysteine level and various symptoms. We speculate that a high level of homocysteine can be the sole reason or an aggravating factor in numerous diseases for which causal links are not fully understood.

The progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is accompanied by a great many observable changes, both molecular and physiological. These include oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and (more proximal to cognitive decline) the death of neuronal and other cells. A systems biology approach seeks to organize these observed variables into pathways that discriminate those that are highly involved (i.e., causative) from those that are more usefully recognized as bystander effects. We review the evidence that iron dysregulation is one of the central causative pathway elements here, as this can cause each of the above effects. In addition, we review the evidence that dormant, non-growing bacteria are a crucial feature of AD, that their growth in vivo is normally limited by a lack of free iron, and that it is this iron dysregulation that is an important factor in their resuscitation. Indeed, bacterial cells can be observed by ultrastructural microscopy in the blood of AD patients. A consequence of this is that the growing cells can shed highly inflammatory components such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS). These too are known to be able to induce (apoptotic and pyroptotic) neuronal cell death. There is also evidence that these systems interact with elements of vitamin D metabolism. This integrative systems approach has strong predictive power, indicating (as has indeed been shown) that both natural and pharmaceutical iron chelators might have useful protective roles in arresting cognitive decline, and that a further assessment of the role of microbes in AD development is more than highly warranted.

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1 Comment

  1. This is a big hammer. Please note this section:

    "A proton pump inhibitor (PPI) pantoprazole 40 mg/day was also prescribed for gastric protection. Such a regime must only be followed under strict and qualified medical guidance to obviate any dangers, especially haemorrhagic bleeding, and of the therapy as a whole."

    Induced hemophilia is no joke.

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